WADA - Richard H. McLaren independent person WADA investigation of Sochi allegations - Report #2

The independent person 2nd report : Richard H. McLaren independent person WADA investigation of Sochi allegations / Richard H. McLaren. - Montréal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2016

Key Highlights of 2nd Report

Institutionalised Doping Conspiracy and Cover Up

1. An institutional conspiracy existed across summer and winter sports athletes who participated with Russian officials within the Ministry of Sport and its infrastructure, such as the RUSADA, CSP and the Moscow Laboratory, along with the FSB for the purposes of manipulating doping controls. The summer and winter sports athletes were not acting individually but within an organised infrastructure as reported on in the 1st Report.

2. This systematic and centralised cover up and manipulation of the doping control process evolved and was refined over the course of its use at London 2012 Summer Games, Universiade Games 2013, Moscow IAAF World Championships 2013, and the Winter Games in Sochi in 2014. The evolution of the infrastructure was also spawned in response to WADA regulatory changes and surprise interventions.

3. The swapping of Russian athletes’ urine samples further confirmed in this 2nd Report as occurring at Sochi, did not stop at the close of the Winter Olympics. The sample swapping technique used at Sochi became a regular monthly practice of the Moscow Laboratory in dealing with elite summer and winter athletes. Further DNA and salt testing confirms the technique, while others relied on DPM.

4. The key findings of the 1st Report remain unchanged. The forensic testing, which is based on immutable facts, is conclusive. The evidence does not depend on verbal testimony to draw a conclusion. Rather, it tests the physical evidence and a conclusion is drawn from those results. The results of the forensic and laboratory analysis initiated by the IP establish that the conspiracy was perpetrated between 2011 and 2015.

The Athlete Part of Conspiracy and Cover Up

5. Over 1000 Russian athletes competing in summer, winter and Paralympic sport, can be identified as being involved in or benefiting from manipulations to conceal positive doping tests. Based on the information reported to International Federations through the IP to WADA there are 600 (84%) summer athletes and 95 (16%) winter athletes.

London Summer Olympic Games

6. Fifteen Russian athlete medal winners were identified out of the 78 on the London Washout Lists. Ten of these athletes have now had their medals stripped.

IAAF Moscow World Championships

7. Following the 2013 IAAF Moscow World Championships, 4 athletics athletes’ samples were swapped. Additional target testing is in progress.

Sochi Winter Olympic Games

8. Sample swapping is established by 2 female ice hockey players’ samples with male DNA.

9. Tampering with original sample established by 2 [sport] athletes, winners of four Sochi Olympic Gold medals, and a female Silver medal winner in [sport] with physiologically impossible salt readings.

10. Twelve medal winning athletes (including the above 3) from 44 examined samples had scratches and marks on the inside of the caps of their B sample bottles, indicating tampering.

11. Six winners of 21 Paralympic medals are found to have had their urine samples tampered with at Sochi.


Chapter 1: Executive Summary of 2nd IP Report Key Highlights of 2nd Report
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Appointment of the IP
1.3 1st Report Key Findings
1.4 Constraints of the 1st Report
1.5 Completion of the IP’s Mandate
1.6 IP Investigative Method
1.7 Chronology of Events
1.8 Highlights
Chapter 2: Athletes Benefiting from Manipulations and Concealment of Positive Tests
Chapter 3: The Moscow Laboratory and the Disappearing Positive Methodology (“DPM”)
Chapter 4: The Olympic Games Year and London 2012
Chapter 5: IAAF Moscow World Championships and Events of 2013
Chapter 6: Sochi 2014 The XXII Olympic Winter Games
Chapter 7: Samples Swapping After Sochi
1.9 Conclusion
Chapter 2: Athletes Benefiting from Manipulations Concealing Positive Doping Tests
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Individual Russian Athletes
2.3 Potential Violations of Code Article 2.2
2.4 Potential Violations of Code Article 2.5.
2.5 Potential Violations of Code Article 2.8/2.9
2.6 Potential Violations of Code Article 2.1
Chapter 3: The Moscow Laboratory & the Disappearing Positive Methodology (“DPM”)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The IP’s Findings on the Moscow Laboratory and the DPM
3.3 DPM Communication Methods
3.4 DPM Investigative Results
3.5 Summary
Chapter 4: The Olympic Games Year and London 2012
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Lay of the Land in Russia 2012
4.3 Incident: WADA Directed Testing of “67 Samples”
4.4 Reaction: Russian Response as a result of WADA Testing Incident
4.5 The Bereg Kit Washout Technique: London 2012
4.6 The XXX Olympiad: London 2012
4.7 Athlete Case Study
4.8 Summary of Findings
Chapter 5: Moscow Championships and Events of 2013
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Eliminating the Identified Vulnerabilities in the Doping Cover up and Manipulation Conspiracy
5.3 Universiade Games: Trial Run on Sample Swapping
5.4 2013 Moscow IAAF World Championships (“Moscow Championships”)
5.5 Corruption Related to Positive Doping Results
5.6 Washout Prior to Moscow Championships
5.7 Sample Swapping at the Moscow Championships
Chapter 6: Sochi 2014 The XXII Olympic Winter Games
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The Protected Athletes
6.3 Clean Urine Harvesting
6.4 The Mechanics of Sample Swapping
6.4.1 Preparation of the Urine Prior to Swap
6.4.2 Movement of A and B Samples within the Laboratory
6.5 Results of the Sochi Forensic Investigation
6.6 Subsequent Forensic Analysis of Paralympic Samples
6. 7 Case Studies
Chapter 7: 2014: Sample Swapping After Sochi
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Action: WADA’s 2014 Regulatory Changes - Steroid Profile ABP
7.3 Reaction: The WADA Steroid Profile Action & the Russian Response
7.4 Sample Swapping in 2014
7.5 The Penultimate Action/Reaction Dichotomy Occurred in the WADA Unannounced Visit of December 2014
7.6 Forensic and Documentary Evidence Related to the WADA Seized Samples
7.7 2014 Case Studies

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9 December 2016
McLaren, Richard H.
World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
Russian Federation
Adverse Analytical Finding / presence
Tampering / attempted tampering
Use / attempted use
Legal Terms
Circumstantial evidence
Digital evidence
International Standard for Laboratories (ISL)
WADA Code, Guidelines, Protocols, Rules & Regulations
Athletics (IAAF) - International Association of Athletics Federations
Canoe (ICF) - International Canoe Federation
Cycling (UCI) - International Cycling Union
Fencing (FIE) - International Fencing Federation
Handball (IHF) - International Handball Federation
Ice Hockey (IIHF) - International Ice Hockey Federation
Judo (IJF) - International Judo Federation
Kickboxing (WAKO) - World Association of Kickboxing Organizations
Paralympic (IPC) - International Paralympic Committee
Powerlifting (IPF) - International Powerlifting Federation
Skating (ISU) - International Skating Union
Ski (FIS) - International Ski Federation
Swimming (FINA) - International Swimming Federation
Weightlifting (IWF) - International Weightlifting Federation
Wrestling (UWW) - United World Wrestling
Other organisations
Center of Sports Preparation of National Teams of Russia (CSP)
Government of the Russian Federation
International Olympic Committee (IOC)
Russian Federal Security Service (FSB)
World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
Паралимпийский Комитет России (ПКР) - Russian Paralympic Committee (RPC)
Российское антидопинговое агентство (РУСАДА) - Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA)
Lausanne, Switzerland: Laboratoire Suisse d’Analyse du Dopage
London, United Kingdom: Drug Control Centre
Moscow, Russia: Antidoping Centre Moscow [*]
[Satellite laboratory] Sochi (RUS)
Analytical aspects
B sample analysis
DNA analysis
Satellite Laboratory
Testing results set aside
Doping classes
M2. Chemical And Physical Manipulation
S1. Anabolic Agents
S2. Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors
S4. Hormone And Metabolic Modulators
S5. Diuretics and Other Masking Agents
S6. Stimulants
S8. Cannabinoids
S9. Glucocorticosteroids
1-Testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (androsterone)
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
Enobosarm (ostarine)
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Fonturacetam (4-phenylpiracetam) (carphedon)
Growth hormone (GH)
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
Methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
Methasterone (17β-hydroxy-2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-3-one)
Methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine)
Prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA, 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one)
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs)
T/E ratio (testosterone / epitestosterone)
Trenbolone (17β-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
Anti-Doping investigation
Athlete Biological Passport (ABP)
Athlete support personnel
Disappearing positive methodology
Doping control
Doping culture
Falsification / fraud
McLaren report
Sample collection procedure
Sports officials
Tip-off / whistleblower
Washout schedule
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