Erythropoietic effects of low-dose cobalt application

Erythropoietic effects of low-dose cobalt application / Torben Hoffmeister, Dirk Schwenke, Nadine Wachsmuth, Oliver Krug,
Mario Thevis, William C. Byrnes, Walter F.J. Schmidt. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 11 (2019) 2 (February) ; p. 200-207).
- PMID: 30110719.
- DOI: 10.1002/dta.2478
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Abstract

Cobaltous ions (Co2+ ) stabilize HIFα, increase endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) production, and may, therefore, be used as a performance-enhancing substance. To date, the dosage necessary to stimulate erythropoiesis is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the minimum dosage necessary to increase erythropoietic processes. In a first double-blind placebo-controlled study (n = 5), single oral Co2+ dosages of 5 mg (n = 6) and 10 mg (n = 7) were administered to healthy young men. Cubital venous blood and urine samples were collected before and up to 24 hours after Co2+ administration. In a second study, the same daily Co2+ dosages were administered for five days (placebo: n = 5, 5 mg: n = 9, 10 mg: n = 7). Blood and urine samples were taken the day before administration and at day 3 and day 5. Plasma [EPO] was elevated by 20.5 ± 16.9% at 5 hours after the single 5-mg administration (p < 0.05) and by 52.8 ± 23.5% up to 7 hours following the 10-mg Co2+ administration (p < 0.001). Urine [Co2+ ] transiently increased, with maximum values 3-5 hours after Co2+ ingestion (5 mg: from 0.8 ± 1.1 to 153.6 ± 109.4 ng/mL, 10 mg: from 1.3 ± 1.7 to 338.0 ± 231,5 ng/mL). During the five days of Co2+ application, 5 mg showed a strong tendency to increase [EPO], while the 10-mg application significantly increased [EPO] at day 5 by 27.2 ± 26.4% (p < 0.05) and the immature reticulocyte fraction by 49.9 ± 21.7% (p < 0.01). [Ferritin] was decreased by 12.4 ± 10.4 ng/mL (p < 0.05). An oral Co2+ dosage of 10 mg/day exerts clear erythropoietic effects, and 5 mg/day tended to increase plasma EPO concentration.

Parameters:

Science
Study
Date:
18 August 2018
People
Byrnes, William C.
Hoffmeister, Torben
Krug, Oliver
Schmidt, Walter F.J.
Schwenke, Dirk
Thevis, Mario
Wachsmuth, Nadine
Country
Germany
United States of America
Language
English
Other organisations
Universität Bayreuth - University of Bayreuth
University of Colorado Boulder (CU Boulder)
Laboratories
Cologne, Germany: Institute of Biochemistry - German Sport University Cologne
Kreischa, Germany: Institute of Doping Analysis and Sports Biochemistry (IDAS)-Dresden
Analytical aspects
New substance, not on prohibited list
Reticulocytes
Doping classes
S2. Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors
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Erythropoietin (EPO)
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Endogenous production
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