Evaluation and Behavior of Spanish Bodybuilders: Doping and Sports Supplements

Evaluation and Behavior of Spanish Bodybuilders: Doping and Sports Supplements / Antonio Jesús Sánchez-Oliver, Moisés Grimaldi-Puyana, Raúl Domínguez. - (Biomolecules 9 (2019) 4; p. 1-9).
- PMID: 30925786.
- DOI: 10.3390/biom9040122


The use of doping agents has these days become a public health problem, as it also affects young and non-competitive amateurs in different sports. To prepare for competition, bodybuilders perform aggressive dietary protocols, so, bodybuilders frequently consume nutritional supplements (NS) and banned substances in large dosages. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of banned substances consumption and NS intake in competitive level bodybuilders. A total of 48 bodybuilders (44 males and 4 females) completed a validated online questionnaire on NS consumption. The quantitative data was presented as a mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD), as well as having minimum and maximum values. The categorical variables were expressed using frequencies and percentages. 83.3% of the participants declared that they had consumed or would consume banned substances, the most consumed being anabolic steroids (72.9%). One hundred percent of those sampled use NS. Whey protein (96%), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) (94%), creatine (85%) and vitamin complexes (83%) were the most consumed, however, there is a low consumption of certain NS which could also increase athletic performance.

Original document


Research / Study
28 March 2019
Domínguez, Raúl
Grimaldi-Puyana, Moisés
Sánchez-Oliver, Antonio Jesús
Bodybuilding & Fitness (IFBB) - International Federation of Bodybuilding & Fitness
Other organisations
Universidad de Sevilla - University of Seville
Universidad Isabel I - University Isabella I
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
S2. Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors
S4. Hormone And Metabolic Modulators
S5. Diuretics and Other Masking Agents
S6. Stimulants
S9. Glucocorticosteroids
Medical terms
Substance use research
Document category
Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
27 March 2019
Date of last modification
23 April 2019
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