Baseline characteristics of the HAARLEM study: 100 male amateur athletes using anabolic androgenic steroids

Baseline characteristics of the HAARLEM study : 100 male amateur athletes using anabolic androgenic steroids / D.L. Smit, O. de Hon, B.J. Venhuis, M. den Heijer, W. de Ronde. - (Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports (2019) 30 October); p. 1-30).
- PMID: 31663164.
- DOI: 10.1111/sms.13592
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Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is common among visitors of fitness centers. Knowledge about health risks of AAS use is limited due to lack of clinical studies.

METHODS:
One hundred men, at least 18 years old, intending to start a cycle of AAS were recruited. Baseline demographical data and reasons for AAS use were recorded. Subjects provided samples of AAS for analysis with UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS.

RESULTS:
One hundred and eleven men were seen for a baseline visit. Nineteen percent had competed in bodybuilding competitions. Recent illicit drug use was reported by 56%. Seventy-seven percent of participants had used AAS in the past and 97% of them had experienced side effects. After exclusion, 100 men comprised the cohort for follow-up. The AAS cycle performed had a median duration of 13 weeks (range 2-52) and the average dose of AAS equivalents was 901 mg per week (range 250-3.382). Subjects used other performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) such as growth hormone (21%). In total 272 AAS samples were analyzed and 47% contained the AAS indicated on the label. The principal reason for AAS use was gain of muscle mass (44%). Forty-eight percent self-reported to being addicted to AAS.

CONCLUSION:
The HAARLEM-study cohort shows that strength athletes use AAS in a wide variety of cycles and often also use illicit drugs and other potentially harmful PIEDs. The quality of the AAS used is strikingly low. Follow-up of the cohort will provide novel data regarding health risks of AAS use.

Parameters:

Science
Study
Date:
30 October 2019
People
de Ronde, W.
den Heijer, M.
Hon, Olivier de
Smit, D.L.
Venhuis, B.J.
Country
Netherlands
Language
English
Other organisations
Academisch Medisch Centrum (AMC) - Academic Medical Center
Dopingautoriteit - Doping Authority Netherlands
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) - National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
Spaarne Gasthuis - Spaarne Hospital
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S1. Anabolic Agents
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