Anabolic, doping, and lifestyle drugs, and selected metabolites in wastewater

Anabolic, doping, and lifestyle drugs, and selected metabolites in wastewater : detection, quantification, and behaviour monitored by high-resolution MS and MS(n) before and after sewage treatment / Horst Fr. Schröder, Wilhelm Gebhardt, Mario Thevis. - (Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2010) 398 (October); p. 1207-1229).
- PMID: 20652555.
- DOI: 10.1007/s00216-010-3958-3
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Abstract

Municipal wastewater has been examined for steroids, β2-agonists, stimulants, diuretics, and phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors (PDE type V inhibitors), which are “dual-use-drugs” applied either as anabolic, doping, and lifestyle drugs or for treatment of diverse diseases. To identify their origin, fitness centre discharges under suspicion of being point sources and sewage-treatment plant feed and effluents were sampled and concentrations determined. Sensitive and selective methods for determination and quantification based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–(HR)MS and HPLC–MS–MS) were developed and established for analysis of these compounds in wastewater and to assess their effect on the environment. The methods developed enabled quantification at trace concentrations (limit of quantification (LOQ): 5 ng L−1). Of the steroids and stimulants under investigation, testosterone, methyltestosterone, and boldenone or ephedrine, amphetamine, and MDMA (3,4-methylendioxy-N-methylamphetamine) were observed at up to 5 μg L−1 (ephedrine). Of the β2-agonists salbutamol only, and of the diuretics furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide were confirmed in the extracts. Quite high concentrations of the PDE type V inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil and their metabolites were confirmed in fitness centre discharges (sildenafil: 1,945 ng L−1) whereas their concentrations in municipal wastewater did not exceed 35 ng L−1. This study identified anabolic and doping drugs in wastewater for the first time. Results obtained from wastewater treatment plant effluents proved that these “dual-use-drugs”, with the exception of hydrochlorothiazide, were mostly eliminated.

Parameters:

Science
Study
Date:
1 October 2010
People
Gebhart, Wilhelm
Schröder, Horst Fr.
Thevis, Mario
Country
Germany
Language
English
Other organisations
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln (DSHS) - German Sport University Cologne
Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen - RWTH Aachen University
Analytical aspects
Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)
Testing method development
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
S3. Beta-2 Agonists
S4. Hormone And Metabolic Modulators
S5. Diuretics and Other Masking Agents
S6. Stimulants
Substances
Boldenone
Ephedrine
Furosemide
Hydrochlorothiazide
Methyltestosterone
Salbutamol
Testosterone
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  • Legal
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  • ADRV
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  • Sport/IFs
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  • Analytical aspects
  • Doping classes
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  • Various
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