Determination of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids as Imidazole Carbamate Derivatives in Human Urine Using LC-MS/MS

Determination of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids as Imidazole Carbamate Derivatives in Human Urine Using LC-MS/MS / Argyro G. Fragkaki, Georgia Petropoulou, Ioanna Athanasiadou, Polyxeni Kiousi, Nassia Kioukia‐Fougia, Helen Archontaki, Evangelos Bakeas, Yiannis S. Angelis. - (Journal of Separation Science (2020, 12 March)).
- PMID: 32166888.
- DOI: 10.1002/jssc.202000036


Anabolic androgenic steroids are widely abused substances in sports doping. Their detection present limitations regarding the use of soft ion sources such as electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization by LC-MS/MS. In the current study, a novel derivatization method was developed for the ionization enhancement of selected anabolic androgenic steroids. The proposed method aims at the introduction of an easily ionizable moiety into the steroid molecule by converting the hydroxyl groups into imidazole carbamates using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole as derivatization reagent. The proposed method was applied to water and urine samples spiked with exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in various concentration levels. Steroid imidazole carbamate derivatives have shown intensive [M+H]+ signals under electrospray ionization and common fragmentation patterns in MS/MS mode with [M-CO2 +H]+ and [M-ΙmCO2 +H]+ as major ions with low collision energy. The obtained results showed that the majority of steroids were detectable at concentrations equal or lower to their Minimum Required Performance Level according to the World Anti-Doping Agency technical document. The proposed method is sensitive with a preparation procedure that could be easily applied to the analysis of doping control samples.


Research / Study
12 March 2020
Angelis, Yanis S.
Archontaki, Helen
Athanasiadou, Ioanna
Bakeas, Evangelos
Fragkaki, Argyro G.
Kioukia-Fougia, Nassia
Kiousi, Polyxeni
Petropoulou, Georgia
Adverse Analytical Finding / presence
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Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών - National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA)
Athens, Greece: Doping Control Laboratory of Athens
Seibersdorf, Austria: Seibersdorf Labor GmbH Doping Control Laboratory
Analytical aspects
Testing method development
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
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24 March 2020
Date of last modification
28 March 2020
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