Validation of a GC/MS method for the detection of two quinolinone-derived selective androgen receptor modulators in doping control analysis

Validation of a GC/MS method for the detection
of two quinolinone-derived selective androgen receptor
modulators in doping control analysis / E. Gerace, A. Salomone, F. Fasano, Régis Afonso Costa, D. Boschi, A. Di Stilo, Marco Vincenti. - (Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry (2011) 400; p. 137–144)

  • PMID: 21165606
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00216-010-4569-8


Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent an emerging class of drugs likely to be abused in sport. For clinical applications, these substances provide a promising alternative to testosterone-replacement therapies and their advantages include oral bioavailability, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the absence of steroid-related side effects. Although not yet commercially available, since January 2008 SARMs have been included on the prohibited list issued yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), so control laboratories need to update their procedures to detect either the parent drugs or their metabolites. Within this context, two quinolinone SARM models were synthesized and automatically characterized to update the existing routine screening procedures. The conditions for the new target analytes are compatible with the existing laboratory protocols used for both in-competition and out-of-competition controls and can be included in them. Validation parameters according to ISO 17025 and WADA guidelines were successfully determined. For analytical determinations, spiked urine samples were hydrolyzed and extracted at pH 9.6 with 10 mL of tert-butyl methyl ether. Then, the analytes were subsequently converted into trimethylsilyl derivatives and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The absence of interferents, together with excellent repeatability of both retention times and the relative abundances of diagnostic ions, allowed proper identification of all SARM analytes. The analytes' quantification was linear up to 500 ng/mL and precision criteria were satisfied (coefficient of variation less than 25% at 10 ng/mL). The limits of detection were 1 ng/mL for both SARMs, whereas recovery values were between 95.5 and 99.3%. The validated method can be efficiently used for urine screening of the 2-quinolinone-derived SARMs tested.

Original document


Research / Study
17 December 2010
Boschi, D.
Costa, Régis Afonso
Di Stilo, A.
E. Gerace
Fasano, F.
Salomone, Alberto
Vincenti, Marco
Other organisations
Centro Regionale Antidoping "Alessandro Bertinaria"
Università degli Studi di Torino (UNITO) - University of Turin
Analytical aspects
Mass spectrometry analysis
Testing method development
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs)
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Scientific article
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Date generated
21 July 2020
Date of last modification
16 September 2020
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