Anabolic steroid abuse : psychiatric and physical costs / Farid Talih, Omar Fattal, Donald Malone Jr. - (Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 74 (2007) 5 (May); p. 341-352)
- PMID: 17506239
- DOI: 10.3949/ccjm.74.5.341
The psychiatric effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (i.e., testosterone and its derivatives) have been less well studied than their physical effects but are reported to include depression, mania, psychosis, and aggression. Dependence can also occur, with withdrawal involving psychiatric and physical symptoms. Adverse effects of steroid abuse should be managed by discontinuing the drugs-by tapering if necessary-and by treating the symptoms.