Doping Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among Young, Amateur Croatian Athletes

Doping Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among Young, Amateur Croatian Athletes / Ivan Miskulin, Danijela Stimac Grbic, Maja Miskulin. - (Sports 9 (2021) 2 (9 February); p. 1-10)

  • PMID: 33572386
  • PMCID: PMC7916256
  • DOI: 10.3390/sports9020025


Recent studies revealed that amateur athletes, especially young ones, have an increasing tendency of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) usage. The aim of this study was to explore PEDs attitudes, beliefs, and practices among young, amateur Croatian athletes. This cross-sectional study using a specially designed questionnaire as a research tool was done during the August 2019 to January 2020 period among a convenient sample of 400 amateur athletes of median age 18 (interquartile range 15 to 21) years. The prevalence of current PEDs usage was 1.3%, while past PEDs usage prevalence was 3.3%. Current PEDs usage was more frequent among young adults (p = 0.048) and athletes playing individual sports (p = 0.001). Athletes who were engaged in sports from one to five years had more permissive attitudes toward PEDs (p < 0.001) as measured by the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale. Female athletes had more positive beliefs about PEDs usage (p = 0.008). The study did not establish any correlation between current or past PEDs usage and attitudes toward PEDs as well as beliefs about PEDs usage. However, there was a weak positive correlation between attitudes toward PEDs and athletes' beliefs about PEDs usage (rs = 0.465, p < 0.001). PEDs usage is present among young Croatian amateur athletes. There is a need for interventions directed toward the prevention of PEDs usage in an observed subgroup of athletes.

Original document


Research / Study
9 February 2021
Miskulin, Ivan
Miskulin, Maja
Stima Grbic, Danijela
Other organisations
Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku (UNIOS) - Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
Sveučilište u Zagrebu - University of Zagreb
Medical terms
Substance use research
Amateur / club / recreational sport
Document category
Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
18 March 2021
Date of last modification
20 March 2021
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