Perceived anabolic–androgenic steroid use is associated with perceived neuroticism

Perceived anabolic–androgenic steroid use is associated with perceived neuroticism / Dominic Sagoe, Kristin Huang, Helge Molde, Cecilie S. Andreassen & Ståle Pallesen. - (Journal of Substance Use 21 (2016) 3; p. 263-267)

  • DOI: 10.3109/14659891.2015.1009510


Ratings of the perceived personality (Five-Factor Model) of an anabolic–androgenic steroid(s) (AAS) user, an erythropoietin (EPO) user, a protein powder user and a nonuser of these ergogenic aids were investigated. The sample of 328 (236 females) non-substance use participants providing the ratings was students aged 18–52 years. They were drawn from three Norwegian higher education institutions and were randomized to four independent experimental conditions, each comprising a specific scenario/description [food (n = 82), protein powder (n = 83), EPO (n = 83), and AAS (n = 80)] similar in number, age and gender distribution. Participants in all conditions rated their protagonist on the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated, consistent with our prediction, that the protagonist who consumed food was perceived as least neurotic whereas the AAS and EPO protagonists were rated similarly on neuroticism. The food and protein powder protagonists were rated similarly on openness albeit higher than the EPO protagonist. The food protagonist was regarded as more agreeable than protagonists of the ergogenic aids. Our findings indicate that perceived AAS use negatively impacts the construal of the perceived user’s personality or social image. Implications of findings are discussed.

Original document


Research / Study
11 February 2015
Andreassen, Cecilie Schou
Huang, Kristin
Molde, Helge
Pallesen, Ståle
Sagoe, Dominic
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Universitetet i Bergen - University of Bergen
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
S2. Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors
Document category
Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
23 August 2021
Date of last modification
1 September 2021
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