Confidence by injection: Male users of anabolic steroids speak of increases in perceived confidence through anabolic steroid use

Confidence by injection : Male users of anabolic steroids speak of increases in perceived confidence through anabolic steroid use / Mario J. Vassallo, Tracy W. Olrich. - (International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 8 (2010) 1; p. 70-80)

  • DOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2010.9671935


Research has accumulated concerning the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic‐androgenic steroids (AAS) in the last decade (Keane, 2005). Despite the proliferation of such work, the reporting of psychological and behavioral effects has often been inaccurate and wildly speculative (Bahrke, 2000). Methodological limitations have also been identified as a problematic issue in this area (Bahrke, 2000). In an attempt to address such limitations, descriptive, qualitative methodologies have begun to be utilized in this area of investigation (Olrich & Ewing, 1999; Olrich & Vassallo, 2002). This study consisted of in‐depth interviews with males (N = 39) who had used AAS. The men were asked several questions concerning the impact of AAS upon perceived psychological functioning. Thirty seven of the 39 participants reported an increase in perceived levels of self‐confidence during the AAS use period. Furthermore, upon cessation of the AAS use cycle, self‐confidence dropped down to, or below, pre‐AAS use levels. The men stated that the drop in confidence levels and the loss of the mental edge were motivating factors contributing to the further use of AAS

Original document


Research / Study
28 February 2011
Olrich, Tracy W.
Vassallo, Mario J.
United States of America
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
Medical terms
Health effects
Psychiatric disorders
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Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
11 November 2021
Date of last modification
2 December 2021
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