Amphetamine use and its associated factors in body builders: a study from Tehran, Iran

Amphetamine use and its associated factors in body builders: a study from Tehran, Iran / Hooman Angoorani, Hooman Narenjiha, Behnoosh Tayyebi, Akhgar Ghassabian, Gelareh Ahmadi, Shervin Assari

  • Archives of Medical Science 8 (2012) 2; p. 362-367
  • PMID: 22662012
  • PMCID: PMC3361051
  • DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.28566


Introduction: Epidemiological studies on all types of illicit drug use among athletes are essential for both the sport community and drug control achievements. Here, we investigated the prevalence and associated factors of amphetamine use in body builders in Tehran, Iran, 2007.

Material and methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a substance use survey done in 103 randomly selected gymnasia in Tehran (capital city of Iran). The survey was conducted from November 2007 to January 2008 and included 843 randomly selected bodybuilders (aged 40 years or less). By interviews via questionnaires the following data were obtained: age, job, marital status, education level, housing status, average monthly family income, number of family members, gymnasium area (m(2)), number of trainers, number of gymnasium members, initiation time (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), monthly cost of the sporting activity, purpose of participating in sporting activity, and history of anabolic steroid and amphetamine use.

Results: One hundred twenty (13.3%) body builders reported a history of amphetamine use. According to the results of regression analysis, being married (risk ratio - RR = 0.540), and participating in body building to enhance self-esteem (RR = 0.423) or to enhance sport performance (RR = 0.545) had protective effects on amphetamine use. However, having university qualifications (RR = 1.843), using anabolic steroids (RR = 1.803) and participating in sport to maintain fitness (RR = 2.472) were linked to increased risk of amphetamine use.

Conclusions: Well-educated bodybuilders were more likely to use amphetamines, and why this is so needs to be discovered. If further studies show that they are not aware of the dangers associated with amphetamine use, providing them with information should be considered.

Original document


Research / Study
9 May 2012
Ahmadi, Gelareh
Angoorani, Hooman
Assari, Shervin
Ghassabian, Akhgar
Nareniha, Hooman
Tayyebi, Behnoosh
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Bodybuilding & Fitness (IFBB) - International Federation of Bodybuilding & Fitness
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University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science
Doping classes
S6. Stimulants
Medical terms
Substance use research
Gym/fitness environment
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Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
1 December 2021
Date of last modification
7 December 2021
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