Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway

Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway / Morgan Scarth, Ingrid A. Havnes, Marie L. Jørstad, Jim McVeigh, Marie Claire Van Hout, Lars T. Westlye, Svenn Torgersen, Astrid Bjørnebekk

  • Drug and Alcohol Dependence 231 (1 February 2022), 109275
  • PMID: 35030506
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109275


Introduction: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), including testosterone and synthetic derivatives, are typically used to increase muscle mass. Many users develop a dependence on these substances, contributing to worsened physical and mental health outcomes. Aspects of personality and executive dysfunction may represent underlying vulnerabilities for developing dependence.

Objective: To identify levels of AAS dependence within substance use disorder (SUD) treatment patients and assess the relationship between dependence severity and personality traits and executive function (EF).

Methods: Data were collected from patients at 38 SUD treatment facilities in Norway. Questionnaires were completed for measures of personality and EF. Measures of symptoms of AAS dependence were used in latent class analysis to identify sub-groups of patients, which were evaluated for association with EF and personality traits, and compared with a group of non-AAS using SUD patients.

Results: Three classes were identified; largely reflecting low, moderate, and high symptoms of dependence. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that moderate and high symptoms were associated with several measures of EF and personality traits, particularly self-monitoring, antagonism, disinhibition, and rigid perfectionism while users with low symptoms exhibited higher capacities for emotional control and shift, and lower negative affectivity, relative to non-AAS using SUD patients. Backward stepwise regressions indicated antagonism, and decreased self-monitoring as key personality and cognitive characteristics of SUD patients with severe AAS dependence.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that specific executive dysfunctions and personality features, particularly those associated with poor emotional control, reduced empathy, and impulsivity are associated with more severe AAS dependence in the SUD population.

Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroids; Executive function; Latent class analysis; Personality; Substance use disorder.

Original document


Research / Study
10 January 2022
Bjørnebekk, Astrid
Havnes, Ingrid Amalia
Jørstad, Marie Lindvik
McVeigh, Jim
Scarth, Morgan
Torgersen, Svenn
Van Hout, Marie Claire
Westlye, Lars T.
United Kingdom
Other organisations
Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU)
Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU)
Oslo universitetssykehus HF - Oslo University Hospital
Universitetet i Oslo - University of Oslo
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
Medical terms
Addiction / dependence
Health effects
Psychiatric disorders
Document category
Scientific article
Document type
Pdf file
Date generated
10 January 2022
Date of last modification
18 January 2022
  • Legal Source
  • Education
  • Science
  • Statistics
  • History
Country & language
  • Country
  • Language
Other filters
  • ADRV
  • Legal Terms
  • Sport/IFs
  • Other organisations
  • Laboratories
  • Analytical aspects
  • Doping classes
  • Substances
  • Medical terms
  • Various
  • Version
  • Document category
  • Document type
Publication period