Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology: Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders

Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology : Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders / Claudio Longobardi, Laura Elvira Prino, Matteo Angelo Fabris, Michele Settanni

  • Psychiatry Research 256 (October 2017), p. 231-236
  • PMID: 28646788
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.065


The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the risk of muscle dysmorphia and psychopathological symptoms in an Italian sample of male bodybuilders.

Method: The sample was recruited online (145 men with a mean age of 30.0 years) and participants were asked to fill out the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), Symptom Cheklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and to provide other socio-demographic data. Bodybuilders at risk of muscle dysmorphia display greater global psychopathology and present higher scores on all SCL-90-R dimensions when compared to bodybuilders not at risk of muscle dysmorphia. Furthermore, risk of muscle dysmorphia is positively associated to dissociative symptoms. The Competitiveness dimension and anabolic steroid intake were not related to muscle dysmorphia, while age appeared to be more significant. Findings are discussed based upon previous studies and directions for future research are suggested.

Original document


Research / Study
17 June 2017
Fabris, Matteo Angelo
Longobardi, Claudio
Prino, Lauren Elvira
Settanni, Michele
Bodybuilding & Fitness (IFBB) - International Federation of Bodybuilding & Fitness
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Università degli Studi di Torino (UNITO) - University of Turin
Medical terms
Muscle dysmorphia
Document category
Scientific article
Document type
Pdf file
Date generated
10 January 2022
Date of last modification
18 January 2022
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