Council of Europe - Explanatory Report to the Anti-Doping Convention (1989)

16 Nov 1989

Explanatory Report to the Anti-Doping Convention / Council of Europe (CoE). - Strasbourg : CoE, 1989

  • European Treaty Series; ETS No. 135


  • Introduction
  • Background
  • The Convention
  • a. Reasons for preparing a convention
  • b. Main featres of the Convention
  • c. Text of the Convention
  • Articles 1-19
  • Notes on the Appendix to the Convention (as approved on 19 September 1989)
  • Explanations

Council of Europe - Anti-Doping Convention (1989)

16 Nov 1989

Anti-Doping Convention / Council of Europe (CoE). - Strasbourg : CoE, 1989

  • European Treaty Series; ETS No. 135

The Convention was open for signature on 16th November 1989 and entered into force on 1 March 1990. To this day it has been ratified by 52 states and is open to non-Member States of the Council of Europe. It has been adopted by Australia, Belarus, Canada, and Tunisia. The Convention does not claim to create a uniform model of anti-doping, but sets a certain number of common standards and regulations requiring Parties to adopt legislative, financial, technical, educational and other measures.

The main objective of the Convention is to promote the national and international harmonisation of the measures to be taken against doping. In their constitutional provisions, each contracting party undertakes to:
- create a national co-coordinating body;
- reduce the trafficking of doping substances and the use of banned doping agents;
- reinforce doping controls and improve detection techniques;
- support education and awareness-raising programmes;
- guarantee the efficiency of sanctions taken against offenders;
- collaborate with sports organisations at all levels, including at international level; and
- to use accredited anti-doping laboratories

Furthermore the Convention describes the mission of the Monitoring Group set up in order to monitor its implementation and periodically re-examine the List of prohibited substances and methods which can be found in annex to the main text.

An Additional Protocol to the Convention entered into force on 1st April 2004 with the aim of ensuring the mutual recognition of anti-doping controls and of reinforcing the implementation of the Convention using a binding control system.

Homicide and near-homicide by anabolic steroid users

1 Jan 1990

Homicide and near-homicide by anabolic steroid users / H.G. Pope Jr, D.L. Katz

  • Journal of clinical psychiatry 51 (1990) 1 (January); p. 28-31
  • PMID: 2295588

Comment in:

The psychology of anabolic steroid use / J.M. McGraw

  • Journal of clinical psychiatry 51 (1990) 6 (June); p. 260
  • PMID: 2347869


    The authors describe three men, all with benign premorbid psychiatric histories, no evidence of antisocial personality disorder, and no history of violence, who impulsively committed violent crimes--including murder--while taking anabolic steroids. Structured psychiatric interviews of each man suggested that steroids played a necessary, if not primary, role in the etiology of the violent behavior. Although the men conceivably might have exaggerated their reports of the effects of steroids in the hopes of improving their legal positions, information from external sources consistently corroborated their accounts in each case. These observations raise the possibility that steroid-induced violence may pose a little-recognized public health problem.

    IOC Medical Commission - 1990 List of Prohibited Classes of Substances and Prohibited Methods

    1 Jan 1990

    1990 List of Prohibited Classes of Substances and Prohibited Methods / IOC Medical Commission. – International Olympic Committee (IOC), 1990


    A. Stimulants
    B. Narcotics
    C. Anabolic Steroids
    D. Beta-blockers
    E. Diuretics
    F. Peptide hormones and analogues

    A. Blood doping
    B. Pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation

    A. Alcohol
    B. Marijuana
    C. Local anaesthetics
    D. Corticosteroids

    Source: Bibliothèque du CIO / IOC Library

    Effect of an anabolic steroid education program on knowledge and attitudes of high school football players.

    1 Jan 1990

    Goldberg L, Bosworth EE, Bents RT, Trevisan L.
    J Adolesc Health Care. 1990 May;11(3):210-4.
    Human Performance Laboratory, School of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201.

    Six varsity high school football teams were assessed by confidential questionnaire regarding anabolic steroids, before and 2 weeks after an education intervention. The education program used the American College of Sports Medicine's position on the "use of anabolic androgenic steroids in sports." Two teams received a lecture and a four-page handout, two teams were given the handout only, and two teams were controls.

    Self-report of current use was 1.1% but 38.8% claimed availability of these agents. Although increased awareness of the adverse effects of anabolic steroid was found after the education program, no differences in attitudes toward the use of anabolic steroids occurred as compared to controls.

    Strategies designed to dissuade adolescent athletes from considering these drugs need to be developed.

    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    The use of anabolic steroids in high school students

    1 Jan 1990

    Terney R, McLain LG.
    Am J Dis Child. 1990 Jan;144(1):99-103.
    Department of Sociology, Loyola University, Chicago, Ill.

    The use of anabolic steroids by athletes has been a frequent topic in many recent reports. While much has been written in the lay literature, there is little in the scientific literature documenting the actual use of steroids, particularly in adolescents.

    We describe the results of a survey of 2113 high school students. The survey was designed to elicit information about students' general knowledge about anabolic steroids, awareness of the risks and side effects, and the incidence of use of anabolic steroids.

    Ninety-four (4.4%) of 2113 students admitted using anabolic steroids. Broken down by sex, 67 (6.5%) of 1028 males and 27 (2.5%) of 1085 females were users of steroids. Athletes had a higher use of steroids (79 [5.5%] of 1436 subjects) than nonathletes (15 [2.4%] of 636 subjects).

    These data suggest that we have another serious, as yet unappreciated drug problem in our adolescents.

    Comment in: The use of anabolic steroids. [Am J Dis Child. 1990]

    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Evaluation of prevalence of "doping" among Italian athletes

    1 Jan 1990

    Scarpino V, Arrigo A, Benzi G, Garattini S, La Vecchia C, Bernardi LR, Silvestrini G, Tuccimei G.
    Lancet. 1990 Oct 27;336(8722):1048-50.
    Institute DOXA, Gallup International Research Institutes, Milan, Italy.

    To evaluate knowledge of, attitudes to, and use of illegal drugs and other forms of "doping" in sport 1015 Italian athletes and 216 coaches, doctors, and managers (technicians) were interviewed after selection on a quota basis.

    Overall, 30% of athletes, managers, and coaches and 21% of doctors indicated that athletic performance can be enhanced by drugs or other doping practices. Over 10% of athletes indicated a frequent use of amphetamines or anabolic steroids at national or international level, fewer athletes mentioning blood doping (7%) and beta-blockers (2%) or other classes of drugs. These proportions were 2-3 times higher for occasional use than for frequent use. Estimates by managers and coaches were much the same as those of athletes when allowance was made for larger random variation. 62% of athletes who acknowledged doping reported pressure to do so from coaches and managers. According to over 70% of athletes access to illegal substances was not difficult. Both athletes and technicians awarded higher scores to risk than to efficacy for any substance, although 42-67% of athletes and technicians regarded amphetamines and anabolic steroids as efficacious. 82% wanted stricter controls not only during competitions but also during training.

    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Drug testing effectiveness in identifying and preventing drug use

    1 Jan 1990

    Drug testing effectiveness in identifying and preventing drug use / R.H. Coombs, F.J. Rya. - (American Journal of Drug and Alcohol 16 (1990) 3-4; p. 173-84)

    • PMID: 2288319
    • DOI: 10.3109/00952999009001582


    The effectiveness of drug testing in identifying and preventing drug use was assessed by a study of intercollegiate athletes required to participate in a urine testing program. Five hundred athletes who underwent testing were contrasted with a comparison group of 124 athletes not tested. Results show that some drug-using athletes avoided detection. Although many reduced their drug usage, some continued in the same pattern as before; a few actually increased drug usage.

    Analysis of anabolic steroids using GC/MS with selected ion monitoring

    1 Mar 1990

    Analysis of anabolic steroids using GC/MS with selected ion monitoring / Bong Chul Chung, Hea-Young P. Choo, Tae Wook Kim, Khee Dong Eom, Oh Seung Kwon, Jawon Suh, Jongsoon Yang, Jongsei Park. - (Journal of Analytical Toxicology 14 (1990) 2 (March-April); p. 91-95)

    • PMID: 2325383
    • DOI: 10.1093/jat/14.2.91


    This study describes the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring to screen 18 anabolic steroids banned by the International Olympic Committee. These anabolic steroids are analyzed in two fractions depending on their excretion pattern: nonconjugated (free) or conjugated fraction. The wet procedure of extracting steroids from urine consists of an initial isolation of lipophilic compounds on a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2 resin, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli. After extraction, the hydrolyzed steroids are derivatized to the corresponding trimethylsilyl ethers. The derivatized steroids are analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring of their characteristic ions. It takes 12 and 26 min to run GC/MS and edit the raw data for nonconjugated and conjugated fractions respectively.

    Drugs in sport : second report of the senate standing committee on environment, recreation and the arts - Black Report

    1 May 1990

    Drugs in sport : second report of the senate standing committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts / Australian parliament, senate. - Canberra : Australian Govt. Pub. Service, 1990
    557 p.
    © Commonwealth of Australia
    [John Black et all.]
    ISBN 0 644 11757 5
    Black report

    In its Interim Report the Committee examined the extent of drug use in Australian sport, underlying reasons for that usage, and some issues relating to the supply of drugs. The Committee also examined allegations about drug use at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). The Report contained a number of major conclusions and twelve recommendations. The extent to which these recommendations and conclusions have led to action by appropriate bodies is examined in Chapter Two of this Second Report.
    In pursuing its inquiry for the Second Report the Committee has examined 'professional' sports and power sports, the supply and distribution of drugs, the national and international regulatory background, together with health and general concerns about the impact of drugs upon society. For the preparation of this Report the Committee received 22 further submissions, a number of supplementary submissions (Appendix 1) and a very significant amount of correspondence. Additionally, a further 15 days of public hearings were held in Brisbane, Canberra, Sydney and Melbourne (Appendix 2).
    During the inquiry for the Second Report, the Committee has received in evidence information and allegations concerning conflict between individuals and organisations. The matters involved have the potential to affect sporting careers. They also relate to the professional conduct of others involved with sports: doctors, pharmacists and veterinarians.
    In dealing with evidence upon such matters the Committee has been particularly mindful of the need to consider and protect the rights of individuals. The Committee has made exhaustive efforts to provide an opportunity for persons upon whom evidence has reflected adversely to make a response under the protection of Parliamentary privilege.

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