Mass spectrometric characterization of different norandrosterone derivatives by low-cost mass spectrometric detectors using electron ionization and chemical ionization

1 Jun 1990

Mass spectrometric characterization of different norandrosterone derivatives by low-cost mass spectrometric detectors using electron ionization and chemical ionization / Douwe de Boer, E.G. de Jong, R.A. Maes. - (Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 4 (1990) 6 (June); p. 181-185)

  • PMID: 2134345
  • DOI: 10.1002/rcm.1290040604


The abuse of nortestosterone in sport is an important problem in doping-control analysis. In order to detect the main urinary metabolite of nortestosterone, norandrosterone (NA), sensitive and specific methodology is necessary. In this context the use of a low-cost mass spectrometric detector such as the Finnigan MAT ion-trap detector (ITD) was studied. The electron ionization (EI) and positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) mass spectra of the methoxime-trimethylsilyl, trimethylsilyl-enol trimethylsilyl ether and pentafluoropropionic ester derivatives of NA are described. The limits of detection of these derivatives are compared with those obtained by the Hewlett-Packard mass selective detector (MSD), another low-cost mass spectrometric detector and operating only in the EI mode. For the derivatives of the reference standard of NA the ITD has in the EI mode the same limit of detection, in the range of 0.5 to 1 ng injected on the column, as the MSD. However, under these conditions the ITD provides more spectrometric information, because it gives full scan data. Moreover, with the same or even improved limits of detection the ITD can operate in the PICI mode. On the other hand, for the analysis of NA isolated from urine samples, the performance of the MSD was better than that of the ITD. The ion trapping technique is probably limited when the chemical background is high.

Commission d'enquête sur le recours aux drogues et aux pratiques interdites pour améliorer la performance athlétique - Dubin Report

1 Jun 1990

Commission d'enquête sur le recours aux drogues et aux pratiques interdites pour améliorer la performance athlétique : [Dubin Report] / Charles L. Dubin. - Ottawa : La Commission ; Ministère des approvisionnements et services Canada, 1990. – XXXI, 714 p. : ill
ISBN 0660929767
ISBN 9780660929767

Cette commission a été créée à la suite de la disqualification du coureur Ben Johnson, gagnant de l'épreuve des 100 mètres aux Jeux Olympiques de Séoul, en 1988. Cette publication est le résultat d'une enquête approfondie sur l'usage des drogues dans les milieu sportifs canadiens. La Commission a en effet tenue des audiences publiques en 1989 dans le but d'enquèter sur l'usage des drogues par les athlètes, plus particulièrement sur celui des stéroides anabolisants, d'analyser leurs effets sur performances des utilisateurs ainsi que des risques qu'elles représentaient pour leur santé. Les conclusions et recommandations de la commission contribueront largement à réhabiliter l'image du sport au Canada et dans le monde entier.

Commission of inquiry into the use of drugs and banned practices intended to increase athletic performance - Dubin Report

1 Jun 1990

Commission of inquiry into the use of drugs and banned practices intended to increase athletic performance : [Dubin Report] / Charles L. Dubin. - Ottawa : The Commission ; Canadian Government Publishing Centre, 1990. – XXIX, 638 p. : ill
ISBN 0660136104
ISBN 9780660136103

In Canada, the federal government established the Commission of Inquiry Into the Use of Drugs and Banned Practices Intended to Increase Athletic Performance, headed by Ontario Appeal Court Chief Justice Charles Dubin. The Dubin Inquiry (as it became known), which was televised live, heard hundreds of hours of testimony about the widespread use of performance-enhancing drugs among athletes. The inquiry began in January 1989 and lasted 91 days, with 122 witnesses called, including athletes, coaches, sport administrators, IOC representatives, doctors and government officials.

Recommendations from the Dubin Report include:
(1) increased and improved drug testing at the national and international levels;
(2) third-party testing by the Sports Medicine Council of Canada;
(3) stricter sanctions, including suspension for at least the next world championship, after a violation;
(4) legal sanctions for steroid distribution and use;
(5) clearer demarcation on rights and responsibilities of Sport Canada and the sports governing bodies, with the former responsible for financing carded athletes and national teams, and the latter responsible for the selection and eligibility of such teams;
(6) change in emphasis by the sporting community, the media, and the public at large from winning medals to personal excellence;
(7) establishment of an independent arbitrator to deal with appeals; and
(8) ethics and morality modules in the National Coaching Certification Program.


Overview of Government and Sport in Canada
1. Government and Sport in Canada

Overview of Doping
2. Doping Definitions and Policies
3. Banned Substances and Practices
4. Doping Control Procedures

The Sports and Events Examined
5. Weightlifting
6. The Canadian Track and Field Association
7. Doping Control Policy and Practice in Track and Field before September 1988
8. The Throwing Events
9. Canada's Olympic Sprint Team, 1988
10. The Disqualification at the Seoul Olympics
11. The Use of Performance-Enhancing Drugs
12. The Positive Test
13. "Estragol" [furazabol]
14. Other Track Athletes
15. Athlete Reserve Fund

Use and Control of Banned Substances
16. Extent of Use of Banned Substances
17. Supply and Distribution of Banned Substances
18. Food and Drugs Act
19. Medical Profession
20. Drug-Testing Issues
21. Doping Control Initiatives before 1988
22. Doping Control Initiatives since 1988

Rights and Ethical Considerations
23. Athletes and Coaches against Drugs
24. Athletes'Rights
25. Ethics and Morality in Sport

Conclusions and Recommendations
26. Conclusions and Recommendations

Comparison of the Effects of High Dose Testosterone and 19-nortestosterone to a Replacement Dose of Testosterone on Strength and Body Composition in Normal Men

1 Jan 1991

Comparison of the Effects of High Dose Testosterone and 19-nortestosterone to a Replacement Dose of Testosterone on Strength and Body Composition in Normal Men / K.E. Friedl, J.R. Dettori, C.J. Hannan Jr, T.H. Patience, S.R. Plymate. - (The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 40 (1991) 4-6; 607-612)

  • PMID: 1958561
  • DOI: 10.1016/0960-0760(91)90283-b


We examined the extent to which supraphysiological doses of androgen can modify body composition and strength in normally virilized men. In doubly blind tests, 30 healthy young men received testosterone enanthate (TE) or 19-nortestosterone decanoate (ND), at 100 mg/wk or 300 mg/wk for 6 weeks. The TE-100 mg/wk group served as replacement dose comparison, maintaining pretreatment serum testosterone levels, while keeping all subjects blinded to treatment, particularly through reduction in testicular volumes. Isokinetic strength measurements were made for the biceps brachii and quadriceps femoris muscle groups before treatment and 2-3 days after the 6th injection. Small improvements were noted in all groups but the changes were highly variable; a trend to greater and more consistent strength gain occurred in the TE-300 mg/wk group. There was no change in weight for TE-100 mg/wk but an average gain of 3 kg in each of the other groups. No changes in 4 skinfold thicknesses or in estimated percent body fat were observed. Of 15 circumferences, significant increases were observed only for men receiving TE-300 mg/wk (shoulders) and ND-300 mg/wk (shoulders and chest). The data suggest that high dose androgens increase body mass and may increase strength in normal men but, except for a consistent weight gain with greater than replacement doses, the detectable changes were highly variable and relatively small, especially in comparison to the significant alterations which were observed for other markers of androgen action.

IOC Medical Commission - 1991 List of Prohibited Classes of Substances and Prohibited Methods (1)

1 Jan 1991

1991 List of Prohibited Classes of Substances and Prohibited Methods / IOC Medical Commission. – International Olympic Committee (IOC), 1991


A. Stimulants
B. Narcotics
C. Anabolic Steroids
D. Beta-blockers
E. Diuretics
F. Peptide hormones and analogues

A. Blood doping
B. Pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation

A. Alcohol
B. Marijuana
C. Local anaesthetics
D. Corticosteroids

Source: Bibliothèque du CIO / IOC Library

Anabolic steroid education and adolescents: do scare tactics work?

1 Jan 1991

Goldberg L, Bents R, Bosworth E, Trevisan L, Elliot DL.
Pediatrics. 1991 Mar;87(3):283-6.
Human Performance Laboratory, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland.

The opinions (level of agreement) of high school varsity football players with regard to reported effects of anabolic steroids were assessed before and after two different education interventions. Lectures and handouts of a balanced education program (potential risks and benefits) were compared with a risks-only (negative or "scare tactics") presentation, in a controlled manner. Those receiving the balanced review significantly increased their
agreement with 5 of 10 targeted adverse effects, while no change occurred for any risks among those taught by the negative intervention.

A teaching model that only emphasizes the untoward consequences of anabolic steroids is ineffective, even in the short-term. A balanced education approach can improve understanding of the potential adverse effects of these drugs. Additional strategies may be required to change young athletes' attitudes toward anabolic androgenic steroid use.

Comment in: Boomerang effect of drug education programs. [Pediatrics. 1991]

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The impact of drug testing on the morale and well-being of mandatory participants

1 Jan 1991

Coombs RH, Coombs CJ.
Int J Addict. 1991 Sep;26(9):981-92.
UCLA School of Medicine 90024.

The impact of drug testing on the morale of mandatory participants was assessed through interviews and questionnaire responses of 500 intercollegiate athletes required to participate in a urine testing program. Subjects varied widely in their experiences. Most were not greatly affected, but some were embarrassed, humiliated, upset, and anxious about being inaccurately identified as drug users. Others experienced positive benefits: new information, a novel and interesting conversation piece, and a socially acceptable way to refuse drugs offered in friendship. Some said that testing benefited their athletic performance and school work. A number of recommendations were made to humanize and improve the experience: a better orientation about what to expect, more effective educational sessions, a warmer, more comfortable testing setting, more reasonable drug testing objectives, and more rigorous testing standards.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Doping Dokumente : Von der Forschung zum Betrug

1 Jan 1991

Doping Dokumente : Von der Forschung zum Betrug / Birgit Berendonk. - Berlin : Springer Verlag, 1991

  • ISBN 3540537422
  • ISBN 0387537422

First edition of the book on East German Anti-doping.

Geahnt und befürchtet hatten die Sportbegeisterten und -zuschauer schon seit langem, daß im Leistungssport gedopt wird. Trotz gelegentlicher Selbstbekenntnisse von Sportlern aber wurde dies von offizieller Seite stets bestritten und Vermutungen als bösartig und falsch abgetan. Noch bestand Hoffnung, daß Fairness und natürliche Freude am Wettkampf im Spitzensport ausschlaggebend sei. Erst als sich deutliche Hinweise - u.a. Ben Johnson in Seoul - nicht mehr abstreiten ließen, fanden in den USA, in Canada und Australien offizielle Untersuchungen statt. Bei den dabei unter Eid gemachten Aussagen von Sportlern, Trainern, Sportmedizinern und Funktionären kam das ungeheure Ausmaß des Dopingmißbrauchs langsam ans Tageslicht. Auch in der Bundesrepublik wurde eine Kommission eingesetzt, deren nun vorliegender Bericht zeigt, daß zumindest in der ehemaligen DDR flächendeckend gedopt wurde. Die offizielle Empfehlung lautet allerdings: keinen Schuldigen nennen, schweigen - und schweigend weiterdopen, um auch bei den nächsten internationalen Sportfesten glänzen zu können. Ohne die genauen Fakten und Namen der Verantwortlichen und Mittäter zu nennen, wird es aber keine Reinigung des Sports vom Doping und keine Zukunft für einen menschenwürdigen Leistungssport geben. Noch gelten die Anabolika-unterstützten Rekorde als Vorgaben. Deshalb und besonders auch der zahlreichen Opfer wegen - der ohne ihr Wissen mit Hormonen behandelten oft jugendlichen Sportler auf der einen Seite sowie derjenigen, die vergeblich versucht hatten, auf faire Art sportliche Leistungen zu erbringen - hat sich die Autorin entschlossen, mit diesem Buch die Wahrheit an die Öffentlichkeit zu bringen. Dokumentiert wird auch, welche gesundheitlichen und psychischen Schäden durch Dopingmittel (androgene Hormone) besonders im Frauensport angerichtet werden, und wie Sportmediziner und Wissenschaftler mitgewirkt haben an Menschen-Versuchen und Forschungsvorhaben mit dem Ziel, neue, stärkere Mittel zu entwickeln und Dopingkontrollen effektiver zu umgehen. Brigitte Berendonk war viele Jahre erfolgreich im Spitzensport - u.a. Deutsche Jugendmeisterin in der damaligen DDR, dann in der BRD, später Deutsche Meisterin im Diskuswerfen und Kugelstoßen und zweifache Olympiateilnehmerin. Insgesamt 39 mal startete sie in der deutschen Leichtathletik-Nationalmannschaft der Frauen. Ein Hamburger Nachrichten-Magazin wird zum Erscheinen über Doping Dokumente berichten.

Doping control of testosterone and human chorionic gonadotrophin: a case study

1 Mar 1991

Doping control of testosterone and human chorionic gonadotrophin : a case study / Douwe de Boer, E.G. de Jong, J.M. van Rossum, R.A. Maes. - (International Journal of Sports Medicine 12 (1991) 1 (February); p. 46-51)

  • PMID: 2030059
  • DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1024654

Erratum in:

  • Int J Sports Med 1991 Aug;12(4):430. De Jong EG [corrected to de Jong EG]


Doping control for testosterone and human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) requires special attention as a difference must be made between the endogenous and exogenous origin of both substances. The detection of exogenous testosterone is based on the ratio of testosterone- to epitestosterone-glucuronide (T/E) in urine. The problems with this ratio are discussed. For hCG analysis in urine the utilization of sandwich-type hCG specific assays instead of hCG/hCG beta competitive assays is recommended. A case study in which an athlete self-administered testosterone and hCG before a competition is described. The T/E ratio and hCG concentration in urine were followed during this period of self-administration. The results demonstrate the relevance of the T/E ratio and of the selected hCG assay. The ratio of testosterone to human Luteinizing Hormone (T/hLH) in serum also indicated the use of hormones. Although the athlete's urine was negative for exogenous testosterone directly after competition, he would have been found positive for hCG.

Anabolic steroids: interest among parents and nonathletes

1 May 1991

Anabolic steroids : interest among parents and nonathletes / P.S. Salva, G.E Bacon. - (Southern medical journal 84 (1984) 5; p. 552-556)

  • PMID: 2035071


To determine the nature and extent of public interest in anabolic steroids, questionnaires were sent to 1290 family physicians and pediatricians in Texas. Of the 517 respondents, 55% reported being asked about steroids or seeing possible steroid users in their practices during the previous 5 years; 261 physicians (51%) reported 1682 inquiries. High school aged boys were the subject of 60% of all inquiries, 26% of which were made by parents and were exclusively related to sports. Football and athletics in general were the most common reasons for inquiry (62%), but 36% of the adolescents were interested in steroids for psychosocial reasons. Nearly 60% of the inquiries by adolescents and 36% of those by parents were considered to be serious, as opposed to casual. All inquiries regarding adolescents were for boys, and less than 1% were nonwhite. On hundred seventy-seven physicians (34%) reported 802 possible steroid users. Only 17 patients fit the stereotype of a steroid user (ie, competitive bodybuilders or professional and collegiate athletes); football players comprised 12.4% of the total. Those thought to be using steroids for psychosocial reasons equaled almost 10% of the total. All those identified as steroid users were male and only nine were nonwhite. The survey results suggest that interest in and use of anabolic steroids are common, rather than the exclusive purview of competitive athletes. This study is the first to demonstrate parental interest in anabolic steroids.

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