Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway

10 Jan 2022

Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway / Morgan Scarth, Ingrid A. Havnes, Marie L. Jørstad, Jim McVeigh, Marie Claire Van Hout, Lars T. Westlye, Svenn Torgersen, Astrid Bjørnebekk

  • Drug and Alcohol Dependence 231 (1 February 2022), 109275
  • PMID: 35030506
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109275


Abstract

Introduction: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), including testosterone and synthetic derivatives, are typically used to increase muscle mass. Many users develop a dependence on these substances, contributing to worsened physical and mental health outcomes. Aspects of personality and executive dysfunction may represent underlying vulnerabilities for developing dependence.

Objective: To identify levels of AAS dependence within substance use disorder (SUD) treatment patients and assess the relationship between dependence severity and personality traits and executive function (EF).

Methods: Data were collected from patients at 38 SUD treatment facilities in Norway. Questionnaires were completed for measures of personality and EF. Measures of symptoms of AAS dependence were used in latent class analysis to identify sub-groups of patients, which were evaluated for association with EF and personality traits, and compared with a group of non-AAS using SUD patients.

Results: Three classes were identified; largely reflecting low, moderate, and high symptoms of dependence. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that moderate and high symptoms were associated with several measures of EF and personality traits, particularly self-monitoring, antagonism, disinhibition, and rigid perfectionism while users with low symptoms exhibited higher capacities for emotional control and shift, and lower negative affectivity, relative to non-AAS using SUD patients. Backward stepwise regressions indicated antagonism, and decreased self-monitoring as key personality and cognitive characteristics of SUD patients with severe AAS dependence.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that specific executive dysfunctions and personality features, particularly those associated with poor emotional control, reduced empathy, and impulsivity are associated with more severe AAS dependence in the SUD population.

Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroids; Executive function; Latent class analysis; Personality; Substance use disorder.

JADO Annual Report 2020 (Jordan)

11 Jan 2022

Jordan Anti-Doping organization (JADO) Annual Report 2020 / Jordan Anti-Doping Organisation (JADO). - Amman : JADO, 2021

ADHD Prescription Medications and Their Effect on Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

13 Jan 2022

ADHD Prescription Medications and Their Effect on Athletic Performance : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis / Jenny Berezanskaya, William Cade, Thomas M. Best, Kristopher Paultre, Carolyn Kienstra

  • Sports Medicine - Open 8 (2022) 5 (13 January), p. 1-15
  • PMID: 35022919
  • PMCID: PMC8755863
  • DOI: 10.1186/s40798-021-00374-y


Abstract

Background: Stimulant medications used for the treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are believed to provide a physical advantage in athletics, but several of these medications are not regulated by the World Anti-Doping Association. Given the prevalence of ADHD among the athlete population and concern for abuse of ADHD medications, this review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate effects of ADHD medications on athletic performance, thereby appraising the validity of claims of performance enhancement.

Methods: A search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Review databases was performed for all randomized controlled trials evaluating athletic performance after ingestion of placebo or ADHD treatment medications from August 2020 through November 2020. All RCTs identified from these search criteria were included for screening, with exclusion of any animal studies. Two reviewers (JB, CK) assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using CONSORT 2010 and Cochrane Collaboration tools. Study results were compiled with corresponding p values for each finding. Effect sizes (Cohen's D) for athletic performance and physiological changes were aggregated for each study. Studies were further screened for homogeneity that would allow for meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was calculated using I2.

Results: A total of 13,033 abstracts evaluating amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and bupropion were screened. The final analysis included nine studies, six of which found significant improvement in athletic performance with use of stimulant medications (p < 0.05). Methylphenidate and amphetamine were consistently identified to have a performance effect. Secondary effects identified included significant increase in heart rate, core temperature, and elevation of various serum hormone levels (p < 0.05). Effect size evaluation found seven studies demonstrating small to large effects on physical performance, as well as in categories of cardiometabolic, temperature, hormone, and ratings of perceived exertion, to varying degrees. A meta-analysis was performed on two studies, demonstrating conflicting results.

Conclusions: Dopaminergic/noradrenergic agonist medications appear to have a positive effect on athletic performance, as well as effects on physiological parameters. Further consideration of medications currently not regulated, i.e. bupropion, is warranted given evidence of athletic performance enhancement.

Application of single hair analysis in a doping case involving amphetamine

17 Jan 2022

Application of single hair analysis in a doping case involving amphetamine / Christopher Wiedfeld, Gisela Skopp, Detlef Thieme, Frank Musshoff

  • Drug Testing and Analysis (17 January 2022)
  • PMID: 35037411
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3217


Abstract

A previously published method for single hair analysis has been applied to a doping case for further clarification. Amphetamine could be detected in multiple micro segments resulting in two distinct concentration peaks in several hairs. The consumption of a contaminated food supplement as possible source for the amphetamine is discussed.

What is the Effect of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Ingestion on Exercise Performance? Current Findings and Future Research Directions

17 Jan 2022

What is the Effect of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Ingestion on Exercise Performance? Current Findings and Future Research Directions / Jozo Grgic

  • Sports Medicine (17 January 2022)
  • PMID: 35038139
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40279-021-01633-4


Abstract

In recent years, studies have explored the effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion on exercise performance. However, due to the contrasting findings, there is still no consensus on this topic. This article provides an overview of the effects of paracetamol on endurance, sprinting, and resistance exercise performance. Studies have reported that paracetamol ingestion may be ergogenic for endurance performance. These effects occur when paracetamol is ingested 45-60 min before exercise and appear to be more pronounced in time-to-exhaustion versus time-trial tests. Besides endurance, paracetamol ingestion 30 min before exercise increases mean power during repeated cycling sprints in interval training involving repeated 30-s all-out bouts. Preliminary data on paracetamol ingestion also suggest: (a) improved endurance performance in the heat; (b) an improvement in single sprint performance, at least when paracetamol is ingested following exercise-induced fatigue; and (c) attenuation of the decline in muscular strength that occurs with repeated maximum contractions. An ergogenic effect of paracetamol is most commonly observed when a dose of 1500 mg is ingested 30-60 min before exercise. Despite these performance-enhancing effects, the aim of this article is not to promote paracetamol use, as side effects associated with its consumption and ethical aspects need to be considered before utilizing paracetamol as an ergogenic aid. Future research on this topic is still needed, particularly related to paracetamol dosing, timing of ingestion, and the effects of paracetamol in females and elite athletes.

ADAK 2021 ADAK vs Judith Jepngetich

18 Jan 2022

In August 2021 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Judith Jepngetich after her samples, collected on two occasions, tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone). After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete was heard for the Kenya Results Managment Panel.

The Atlete accepted the test results and denied the intentional use of the substance. She stated that she suffered from a cold and had used medication provided by a chemist. She acknowledged that she only mentioned one of the two products on the Doping Control Form.

The Panel finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's samples and accordingly that she committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Panel deems that without corroborating evidence the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional, nor how the substance had entered her system, nor that she acted without fault or negligence.

Therefore the Panel decides on 18 January 2022 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 24 August 2021.

Detection of bazedoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, in human urine by LC-MS/MS

18 Jan 2022

Detection of bazedoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, in human urine by LC-MS/MS / Masato Okano, Mitsuhiko Sato, Shinji Kageyama

  • Drug Testing and Analysis (18 January 2022)
  • PMID: 35043573
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3225


Abstract

Bazedoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been explicitly included in the prohibited list issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) since January 2020. A high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection method was developed to identify bazedoxifene and its metabolites in human urine and to quantify bazedoxifene (free plus glucuronide) for doping control purposes. Bazedoxifene acetate (20 mg) was orally administered to seven male volunteers, and the urine samples collected were analyzed using the developed method. The linearity ranged from 0.5 to 200 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was <0.2 ng/mL. The inter-day precision (2.2% to 3.6%) and the inter-day accuracy (-10.0% to 1.9%) were adequate. Bazedoxifene, bazedoxifene-N-oxide, and bazedoxifene gluco-conjugates were identified in the urine samples. The profiles of the urinary excretion indicated the presence of small amounts of free bazedoxifene and bazedoxifene-N-oxide, while bazedoxifene glucuronide was the predominant metabolite. The cumulative excretion amount of bazedoxifene (free form plus glucuronide conjugate) within 78 h after the administration was 0.7% to 1.3% of the total dose. In all subjects, bazedoxifene (free plus glucuronide) could be detected in urine up to 78 h after administration.

WADA - Independent Observers Report Olympic Games 2020

20 Jan 2022

Independent Observers Report of the Olympic Games, Tokyo 2020 / Francesca Rossi. - Independent Observer Team. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2021

WADA - Independent Observers Report Paralympic Games 2020

20 Jan 2022

Independent Observers Report Paralympic Games, Tokyo 2020 / Jenny Schulze. - Independent Observer Team. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2022

JADO Annual Report 2021 (Jordan)

23 Jan 2022

Jordan Anti-Doping organization (JADO) Annual Report 2021 / Jordan Anti-Doping Organisation (JADO). - Amman : JADO, 2022

Category
  • Legal Source
  • Education
  • Science
  • Statistics
  • History
Country & language
  • Country
  • Language
Other filters
  • ADRV
  • Legal Terms
  • Sport/IFs
  • Other organisations
  • Laboratories
  • Analytical aspects
  • Doping classes
  • Substances
  • Medical terms
  • Various
  • Version
  • Document category
  • Document type
Publication period
Origin