World Rugby 2021 WR vs Gerhard Opperman

31 Mar 2022

In December 2021 World Rugby has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Namibian ruby player Gerhard Opperman after after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Metandienone and Tamoxifen.

After notification the Athlete admitted the violation, waived his right for a hearing, accepted the provisional sanction and the sanction proposed by World Rugby.

World Rugby deems that the violation was committed intentionally and considers that the Athlete gave an early admission and accepted the proposed sanction in orde to receive a reduction of the sanction of 1 year.

Therefore World Rugby decides on 31 March 2022 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 16 December 2021.

ITF 2021 ITF vs Elizaveta Demina

30 Mar 2022

In January 2022 the International Tennis Federation (ITF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Russian tennis player Elizavetka Demina after her A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Meldonium.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived her right for a hearing, accepted the provisional suspension and the decision rendered by the ITF. The Athlete admitted that prior in August 2021 she had used Mildronate over two week in order to recover after a period of intense training.

The ITF finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's samples and accordingly that she committed an anti-doping rule violation. The ITF deems that the Athlete had not attempted to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional and considers that she gave an early admission and acceptance of sanction.

Therefore the ITF decides on 30 March 2022 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 21 January 2022.

CAS OG_2022_11 United States Figure Skating Team vs IOC

30 Mar 2022

CAS OG 22/11 Evan Bates, Karen Chen, Nathan Chen, Madison Chock, Zachary Donohue, Brandon Frazier, Madison Hubbell, Alexa Knierim, and Vincent Zhou vs International Olympic Committee (IOC)

Related case:

CAS OG_2022_08 IOC, WADA, ISU vs RUSADA, Kamila Valieva & ROC
February 17, 2022



Evan Bates, Karen Chen, Nathan Chen, Madison Chock, Zachary Donohue, Brandon Frazier, Madison Hubbell, Alexa Knierim and Vincent Zhou are members of the United States Figur Skating Team who placed second in the Figure Skating Team Event at the 2022 Beijing Olympic Winter Games.

In February 2022 the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Russian figure skater Kamila Valieva (15) after her sample, collected on 25 December 2025, tested positive for the prohibited substance Trimetazidine.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered on 8 February 2022 and consequently the Athlete was prohibited from participation in the 2022 Beijing Olympic Games.

Yet the RUSADA Disciplinary Anti-Doping Committee (DADC) decided on 9 February 2022 to lift the Athlete's provisional suspension as it established that under the Russian ADR and the WADC 2021 the minor Athlete is a Protected Person.

On 14 February 2022, the CAS Ad Hoc Division dismissed all three applications in the consolidated proceedings (CAS OG 22/8-22/9-22/10). The Panel deemed that the Athlete has the status of a protected person and that the Provisional Suspension in question should remain lifted whether or not the Athlete committed an anti-doping rule violation.

On 14 February 2022 the IOC decided In the interest of fairness to all athletes and the NOCs concerned, it would not be appropriate to hold the medal ceremony for the figure skating team event during the Beijing Olympic Winter Games as it would include an athlete who on the one hand has a positive A-sample, but whose violation of the anti-doping rules has not yet been established on the other hand.

After deliberations with the IOC about the postponement of the medal ceremony the members of the United States Figure Skating Team appealed the IOC Decision of 14 February 2022 with the CAS AD Hoc Division.

The Applicants argued that they are innocent bystanders and completely uninvolved in the ongoing doping case related to the Athlete and the Olympic Figure Skating Team Event. The Applicants earned their second place in the Figure Skating Team Event and they cannot be deprive of being awarde their silver medals in a publice ceremony.

Accordingly the Applicants requested that the IOC be ordered to present to them the silver medals in a public ceremony to be held prior to the close of the Winter Olympic Games.

In this case the Panel finds that the Appealed Decision was neither abusive nor arbitrary, nor does the Panel find that the IOC exceeded its powers. Also the Panel fully understands the interests of the Applicants in having medals awarde to them in public during the Games.

However, and as confirmed during the hearing, none of the Parties ever expected a situation like the one at hand to arise, which is why the Panel finds no legal basis for concluding that the Appealed Decision did in fact breach any legal rights of the Applicants.

The Panel recognises the sole discretion of the IOC to decide on issues regarding, inter alia, the medal ceremonies as set out in Rule 56 of the Olympic Charter.

As such, and based on the circumstances of this case, the Panel finds no legal basis for ordering the IOC to organise a medal ceremony for the Figure Skating Team Event during the Olympic Winter Games. Consequently, the Applicants’ Application of 18 February 2022 is therefore dismissed and the Appealed Decision stands.

Therefore the Ad Hoc Division of the Court of Arbitration for Sport decides on 30 March 2022 that:

The Application filed by Evan Bates, Karen Chen, Nathan Chen, Madison Chock, Zachary Donohue, Brandon Frazier, Madison Hubbell, Alexa Knierim and Vincent Zhou is dismissed.

World Athletic 2022 WA vs Morris Munene Gachaga

30 Mar 2022

In March 2022 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics has reported an an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Munene Gachaga for his Whereabouts Filing Failures resulting in 3 Missed Tests within a 12 month period, beginning in December 2020.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the AIU.

After the Second and Third Missed Test the Athlete and his representative confirmed that they had forgotten to update the Athlete's Whereabouts information.

Therefore the AIU decides on 30 March 2022 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. 4 March 2022.

CAS 2021_A_7761 World Athletics vs Joyce Chepkirui & ADAK & Athletics Kenya

28 Mar 2022

CAS 2021/A/7761 World Athletics v. Joyce Chepkirui & Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) & Athletics Kenya (AK)

In June 2019 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics (WA) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Joyce Chepkirui after an AIU Expert Panel concluded unanimously in February 2018 in their Joint Expert Opinion that the Athlete’s hematological profile “highly likely” showed that she used a prohibited substance or a prohibited method: the use of EPO or Blood doping. 

This conclusion of the AIU Expert Panel was based on assessment of blood samples, collected in the period from 18 April 2013 until 4 August 2017 reported in the Athlete’s Biological Passport (ABP).

After notification the Athlete submitted several explanations for the abnormalities in her ABP. However after consideration the Expert Panel rejected the Athlete’s explanations in their 2nd (May 2019) and 3rd (August 2019) Joint Opinion.

A provisional suspension was ordered in June 2019 and the Athlete was heard for the Sports Dispute Tribunal of Kenya (SDT). Yet on 19 November 2020 the SDT decided to dismiss the ABP case against the Athlete.

Hereafter in March 2021 WA appealed the SDT Decision with the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) while the Athlete filed a cross appeal in April 2021. WA requested the Panel to set aside the Appealed Decision, conversely the Athlete requested to dismiss the Appeal filed by WA.

WA contended that the ABP profile of the Athlete constitutes reliable evidence of blood doping in the period 2016 and 2017. None of the Athlete's arguments explain the abnormalities in her ABP, nor that her violation was not intentional. ADAK Athletics Kenya concurred with the submissions made by WA.

The Athlete disputed the validity of the ABP as a reliable means of evidencing intentional blood manipulation. Further she argued that her medical condition, her medication and diet could explain the abnormalities in her ABP.

The Sole Arbitrator finds that principal reliability of the ABP has been confirmed by CAS in numerous cases and has been codified by WADA and WA on the basis of reliable scientific evidence.

The Arbitrator deems that the Athlete failed to substantially contest the Expert Panel's findings of the Second Expert Panel Joint Opinion (confirmed by the Third Expert Panel Joint Opinion). Further there are no indications that would cast doubt on the plausibility and appropriateness of the Expert Panel's findings.

The Sole Arbitrator is comfortably satisfied by the assessment of the Athlete's ABP that the Athlete has committed an anti-doping rule violation, i.e. that WA succeeded in establishing that the abnormal values of samples 4 to 8 in the Athlete's ABP were caused by blood doping.

The Athlete failed to prove by a balance of probability that the abnormal values in her ABP resulted from vaginal bleeding following hormonal imbalance, the use of various medications or an iron-rich diet.

Finally the Sole Arbitrator considers that there were substantial delays in the proceedings not attributed to the Athlete and that it is unfair to disqualify all the results of the Athlete over a period of more than five years.

Therefore the Court of Arbitration for Sport decides on 28 March 2022 that:

  1. The appeal filed on 5 March 2021 by World Athletics with the Court of Arbitration for Sport against the decision of the Sports Dispute Tribunal of the Republic of Kenya dated 19 November 2020 is upheld.
  2. The decision of the Sports Dispute Tribunal of the Republic of Kenya dated 19 November 2020 is set aside.
  3. A period of ineligibility of four years is imposed on Ms. Joyce Chepkirui starting from 28 June 2019.
  4. All competitive results of Ms. Joyce Chepkirui from 6 April 2016 until 4 August 2017 are to be disqualified, with all resulting consequences, including forfeiture of any titles, awards, medals, profits, prizes, and appearance money.
  5. The costs of the arbitration, to be determined and served to the Parties separately by the CAS Court Office, shall be borne by the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya.
  6. The Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya shall pay an amount of CHF 2,000 (two thousand Swiss Francs) to World Athletics as contribution to its legal costs and other expenses incurred in the present proceedings.

CNA/MEX-NADO Annual Report 2021 (Mexico)

25 Mar 2022

Report of activities carried out by the National Anti-Doping Committee (CNA/MEX-NADO) during 2021 / Comité Nacional Antidopaje de México (CNA/MEX-NADO). - Mexico City : CNA/MEX-NADO, 2022

ABCD Annual Report 2021 (Brazil)

23 Mar 2022

2021 relatório executivo da ABCD / Autoridade Brasileira de Controle de Dopagem (ABCD) - Brazilian Doping Control Authority. - Brasília : ABCD, 2022

WADA - Athlete Vulnerabilities Research Project

23 Mar 2022

Athlete Vulnerabilities Research Project : descriptive report on sport stakeholders' beliefs about athlete doping vulnerabilities and realted factors / Samuel St-Martin, David Pavot. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2022



The aim of the survey, conducted in collaboration with Canada’s Université de Sherbrooke Research Chair on Anti-Doping in Sport, was to gather insight from those engaged in sport as to the types of athletes who may be more vulnerable to doping and the factors that contribute to causing vulnerability; and, as a result, to allow International Federations (IFs) and National Federations (NFs) to be more proactive in their protection of vulnerable athletes. The results will also help WADA identify specific areas for further investigation and research.

Nine vulnerability factors were identified as ‘most important’ by both athletes and sport personnel, highlighting the need for education programs that cover a broad range of topics and provide support to athletes through varied means.

Nutritional supplements were considered the leading area of concern by most sport personnel, while athletes pointed to the physical demands of sport and the need for quick physical development and performance improvements.

International-level male athletes were identified as being most vulnerable to intentional doping and inadvertent doping.

Coaches were deemed to be the most influential personnel along the athlete pathway, particularly at the elite levels, an indication of the need for education programs for coaches that provide them with accurate, up-to-date information and advice they can pass along to their athletes. In addition, this highlights that coaches may be best placed to identify vulnerable athletes and be able to intervene, if given the tools and strategies to do so.

Education was considered the most effective way to support athletes who may be vulnerable to doping, along with support beyond traditional education programs, such as nutritional and psychological support.

ISR 2021 KNAU Decision Appeal Committee 2020004 B

16 Mar 2022

Related case:

ISR 2020 KNAU Disciplinary Committee 2020004 T
April 22, 2021

On 22 April 2021 the ISR KNAU Disciplinary Committee decided to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Person after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance LGD-4033 (Ligandrol).

In First Instance the Disciplinary Committee deemed that the Athlete failed to establish that the violation was not intentional, nor how the substance had entered his system.

Hereafter in May 2021 the Person appealed the Decision of the ISR KNAU Disciplinary Committee. He filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the ISR KNAU Appeal Committee.

The Person denied the intentional use of the substance and requested for a reduced sanction. He asserted that he had acted carefully and that he was tested before without issues. He acknowled that his attemps to find the source of the prohibited substance were unsuccesful. Invoking case law he disputed the burden and standards of proof in order to show his lack of intent.

The KNAU and Dopingautoriteit contended that the Person intentionally had committed an anti-doping rule violation. A high concentration of the prohibited substance was found in the Person's samples whereas the case law in question dealed with a low concentration.

Further the Person failed to demonstrate that he had checked his supplements before using; there was no record that the Person was tested before in the Netherlands; and Internationally he was tested only three times.

The Appeal Committee finds that the presence of a prohibited substance had been established in the Person's samples and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Committee deems that the Person failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional, nor how the substance had entered his system, nor that his supplements were contaminated. In his defence he only raised assumptions whereas the invoked case law in question does not support his appeal.

Therefore the ISR KNAU Appeal Committee decides on 16 March 2021 to uphold the Appealed Decision of 22 April 2021 of the ISR KNAU Disciplinary Committee.

Fees and expenses for this committee shall be borne by the Person.

CCES 2022 CCES vs Donovan Burgmaier

15 Mar 2022

In January 2022 the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the football player Donovan Burgmaire for the use of the prohibited substance Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.

Prior a CCES investigation had established that the Athlete had used the substance in 2016 and 2017 as a player of the Edmonton Huskies in the Canadian Junior Football League.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by CCES.

In view of lex mitior and because the Athlete signed and submitted the Early Admission and Acceptance Form the Athlete received a 1 year reduction from CCES.

Therefore CCES decides on 15 March 2022 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 26 January 2022.

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