Application of single hair analysis in a doping case involving amphetamine

17 Jan 2022

Application of single hair analysis in a doping case involving amphetamine / Christopher Wiedfeld, Gisela Skopp, Detlef Thieme, Frank Musshoff

  • Drug Testing and Analysis (17 January 2022)
  • PMID: 35037411
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3217


A previously published method for single hair analysis has been applied to a doping case for further clarification. Amphetamine could be detected in multiple micro segments resulting in two distinct concentration peaks in several hairs. The consumption of a contaminated food supplement as possible source for the amphetamine is discussed.

What is the Effect of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Ingestion on Exercise Performance? Current Findings and Future Research Directions

17 Jan 2022

What is the Effect of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Ingestion on Exercise Performance? Current Findings and Future Research Directions / Jozo Grgic

  • Sports Medicine (17 January 2022)
  • PMID: 35038139
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40279-021-01633-4


In recent years, studies have explored the effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion on exercise performance. However, due to the contrasting findings, there is still no consensus on this topic. This article provides an overview of the effects of paracetamol on endurance, sprinting, and resistance exercise performance. Studies have reported that paracetamol ingestion may be ergogenic for endurance performance. These effects occur when paracetamol is ingested 45-60 min before exercise and appear to be more pronounced in time-to-exhaustion versus time-trial tests. Besides endurance, paracetamol ingestion 30 min before exercise increases mean power during repeated cycling sprints in interval training involving repeated 30-s all-out bouts. Preliminary data on paracetamol ingestion also suggest: (a) improved endurance performance in the heat; (b) an improvement in single sprint performance, at least when paracetamol is ingested following exercise-induced fatigue; and (c) attenuation of the decline in muscular strength that occurs with repeated maximum contractions. An ergogenic effect of paracetamol is most commonly observed when a dose of 1500 mg is ingested 30-60 min before exercise. Despite these performance-enhancing effects, the aim of this article is not to promote paracetamol use, as side effects associated with its consumption and ethical aspects need to be considered before utilizing paracetamol as an ergogenic aid. Future research on this topic is still needed, particularly related to paracetamol dosing, timing of ingestion, and the effects of paracetamol in females and elite athletes.

ADHD Prescription Medications and Their Effect on Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

13 Jan 2022

ADHD Prescription Medications and Their Effect on Athletic Performance : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis / Jenny Berezanskaya, William Cade, Thomas M. Best, Kristopher Paultre, Carolyn Kienstra

  • Sports Medicine - Open 8 (2022) 5 (13 January), p. 1-15
  • PMID: 35022919
  • PMCID: PMC8755863
  • DOI: 10.1186/s40798-021-00374-y


Background: Stimulant medications used for the treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are believed to provide a physical advantage in athletics, but several of these medications are not regulated by the World Anti-Doping Association. Given the prevalence of ADHD among the athlete population and concern for abuse of ADHD medications, this review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate effects of ADHD medications on athletic performance, thereby appraising the validity of claims of performance enhancement.

Methods: A search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Review databases was performed for all randomized controlled trials evaluating athletic performance after ingestion of placebo or ADHD treatment medications from August 2020 through November 2020. All RCTs identified from these search criteria were included for screening, with exclusion of any animal studies. Two reviewers (JB, CK) assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using CONSORT 2010 and Cochrane Collaboration tools. Study results were compiled with corresponding p values for each finding. Effect sizes (Cohen's D) for athletic performance and physiological changes were aggregated for each study. Studies were further screened for homogeneity that would allow for meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was calculated using I2.

Results: A total of 13,033 abstracts evaluating amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and bupropion were screened. The final analysis included nine studies, six of which found significant improvement in athletic performance with use of stimulant medications (p < 0.05). Methylphenidate and amphetamine were consistently identified to have a performance effect. Secondary effects identified included significant increase in heart rate, core temperature, and elevation of various serum hormone levels (p < 0.05). Effect size evaluation found seven studies demonstrating small to large effects on physical performance, as well as in categories of cardiometabolic, temperature, hormone, and ratings of perceived exertion, to varying degrees. A meta-analysis was performed on two studies, demonstrating conflicting results.

Conclusions: Dopaminergic/noradrenergic agonist medications appear to have a positive effect on athletic performance, as well as effects on physiological parameters. Further consideration of medications currently not regulated, i.e. bupropion, is warranted given evidence of athletic performance enhancement.

JADO Annual Report 2020 (Jordan)

11 Jan 2022

Jordan Anti-Doping organization (JADO) Annual Report 2020 / Jordan Anti-Doping Organisation (JADO). - Amman : JADO, 2021

iNADO Update #2022-01

10 Jan 2022

iNADO Update (2022) 1 (10 January)
Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO)


iNADO Community

  • iNADO Season's Greetings
  • iNADO Live Chat  - Nick Paterson

Bulletin Board

  • Annual Banned Substance Review 2020 / 2021
  • iNADO Member-only webinar
  • WADA: Anti-Doping Rule Violation Report for 2019


  • Jane Rumble - New CEO of UKAD


  • Study examines ligandrol to determine inadvertent or advertent doping
  • Psychological intervention as a powerful tool in doping prevention? 
  • 2022 Scientific Research Grant by WADA
  • Suggested minimum reporting level for diuretics

Practical Development in Anti-Doping

  • The Council of Europe Anti-Doping Monitoring Group
  • Move of the Analysis Department of the French-Anti-Doping Organization

Feature of the Month

  • INADO participate in the closing meeting of ERASMUS+ Programme Project IMPACT

iNADO Partners & Sponsors

  • New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway

10 Jan 2022

Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway / Morgan Scarth, Ingrid A. Havnes, Marie L. Jørstad, Jim McVeigh, Marie Claire Van Hout, Lars T. Westlye, Svenn Torgersen, Astrid Bjørnebekk

  • Drug and Alcohol Dependence 231 (1 February 2022), 109275
  • PMID: 35030506
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109275


Introduction: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), including testosterone and synthetic derivatives, are typically used to increase muscle mass. Many users develop a dependence on these substances, contributing to worsened physical and mental health outcomes. Aspects of personality and executive dysfunction may represent underlying vulnerabilities for developing dependence.

Objective: To identify levels of AAS dependence within substance use disorder (SUD) treatment patients and assess the relationship between dependence severity and personality traits and executive function (EF).

Methods: Data were collected from patients at 38 SUD treatment facilities in Norway. Questionnaires were completed for measures of personality and EF. Measures of symptoms of AAS dependence were used in latent class analysis to identify sub-groups of patients, which were evaluated for association with EF and personality traits, and compared with a group of non-AAS using SUD patients.

Results: Three classes were identified; largely reflecting low, moderate, and high symptoms of dependence. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that moderate and high symptoms were associated with several measures of EF and personality traits, particularly self-monitoring, antagonism, disinhibition, and rigid perfectionism while users with low symptoms exhibited higher capacities for emotional control and shift, and lower negative affectivity, relative to non-AAS using SUD patients. Backward stepwise regressions indicated antagonism, and decreased self-monitoring as key personality and cognitive characteristics of SUD patients with severe AAS dependence.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that specific executive dysfunctions and personality features, particularly those associated with poor emotional control, reduced empathy, and impulsivity are associated with more severe AAS dependence in the SUD population.

Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroids; Executive function; Latent class analysis; Personality; Substance use disorder.

ADAS Annual Report (Serbia) 2021

31 Dec 2021

ADAS Annual Report 2021 / Anti-Doping Agency of Serbia (ADAS). - Belgrade : Antidoping Agencija Republike Srbije, 2022

UKAD 2021 UKAD vs Jamie Acton

27 Dec 2021

In April 2021 the United Kingdom Anti-Doping (UKAD) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the rugby player Jamie Acton after reanalysis of his sample, provided in December 2014, revealed the presence of the prohibited substance GHRP-6. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered.

At first the Athlete stated that he was retired from rugby since April 2019, yet he failed to provide an explanation for the positive test result. Hereafter in July 2021 the Athlete admitted the violation, waived his right for a hearing and accepted the sanction proposed by UKAD.

UKAD deems that the Athlete had committed one single first anti-doping rule violation pursuant to the 2009 ADR without grounds for a reduced sanction.

Therefore UKAD decides on 27 Decemer 2021 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 30 April 2021.

CCES 2021 CCES vs Alexis Stevens

23 Dec 2021

In November 2021 the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Alexis Stevens after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance GW501516.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by CCES.

Because the Athlete signed and submitted the Early Admission and Acceptance Form the Athlete received a 1 year reduction from CCES.

Therefore CCES decides on 23 December 2021 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 18 November 2021.

Clomiphene citrate for men with hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

21 Dec 2021

Clomiphene citrate for men with hypogonadism : a systematic review and meta-analysis / Manou Huijben, M. Tycho W.T. Lock, Vincent F. de Kemp, Laetitia M.O. de Kort, H.M.K. van Breda

  • Andrology (21 December 2021), p. 1-19
  • PMID: 34933414
  • DOI: 10.1111/andr.13146


Background: Male hypogonadism is a clinical and biochemical androgen insufficiency syndrome, becoming more prevalent with age. Exogenous testosterone is first-choice therapy, with several side effects, including negative feedback of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in suppression of intratesticular testosterone production and spermatogenesis. To preserve these testicular functions while treating male hypogonadism, clomiphene citrate is used as off-label therapy. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of clomiphene citrate therapy for men with hypogonadism.

Methods: The EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane databases were searched in May 2021, for effectiveness studies of men with hypogonadism treated with clomiphene citrate. Both intervention and observational studies were included. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool, a validated instrument, was used to assess methodological study quality. The primary outcome measure was the evaluation of serum hormone concentration. Secondary outcomes were symptoms of hypogonadism, metabolic and lipid profile, side effects, safety aspects.

Results: We included 19 studies, comprising four randomized controlled trials and 15 observational studies, resulting in 1642 patients. Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 1279 patients. Therapy and follow-up duration varied between one and a half and 52 months. Total testosterone increased with 2.60 (95% CI 1.82-3.38) during clomiphene citrate treatment. An increase was also seen in free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin and estradiol. Different symptom scoring methods were used in the included studies. The most frequently used instrument was the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males questionnaire, whose improved during treatment. Reported side effects were only prevalent in less than 10% of the study populations and no serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: Clomiphene citrate is an effective therapy for improving both biochemical as well as clinical symptoms of males suffering from hypogonadism. Clomiphene citrate has few reported side effects and good safety aspects.

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