The effect of short-term use of testosterone enanthate on muscular strength and power in healthy young men

1 May 2007

The effect of short-term use of testosterone enanthate on muscular strength and power in healthy young men / Shane Rogerson, Robert P. Weatherby, Glen B. Deakin, Rudi A. Meir, Rosanne A. Coutts, Shi Zhou, Sonya M. Marshall-Gradisnik. - (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21 (2007) 2 (May); p. 354–361)

  • PMID: 17530941
  • DOI: 10.1519/R-18385.1


Abstract

Use of testosterone enanthate has been shown to significantly increase strength within 6-12 weeks of administration (2, 9), however, it is unclear if the ergogenic benefits are evident in less than 6 weeks. Testosterone enanthate is classified as a prohibited substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and its use may be detected by way of the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio (16). The two objectives of this study were to establish (a) if injection of 3.5 mg.kg(-1) testosterone enanthate once per week could increase muscular strength and cycle sprint performance in 3-6 weeks; and (b) if the WADA-imposed urinary T/E ratio of 4:1 could identify all subjects being administered 3.5 mg.kg(-1) testosterone enanthate. Sixteen healthy young men were match-paired and were assigned randomly in a double-blind manner to either a testosterone enanthate or a placebo group. All subjects performed a structured heavy resistance training program while receiving either testosterone enanthate (3.5 mg.kg(-1)) or saline injections once weekly for 6 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength measures and 10-second cycle sprint performance were monitored at the pre (week 0), mid (week 3), and post (week 6) time points. Body mass and the urinary T/E ratio were measured at the pre (week 0) and post (week 6) time points. When compared with baseline (pre), 1RM bench press strength and total work during the cycle sprint increased significantly at week 3 (p < 0.01) and week 6 (p < 0.01) in the testosterone enanthate group, but not in the placebo group. Body mass at week 6 was significantly greater than at baseline in the testosterone enanthate group (p < 0.01), but not in the placebo group. Despite the clear ergogenic effects of testosterone enanthate in as little as 3 weeks, 4 of the 9 subjects in the testosterone enanthate group (approximately 44%) did not test positive to testosterone under current WADA urinary T/E ratio criteria.

Anabolic steroids among resistance training practitioners

1 Feb 2021

Anabolic steroids among resistance training practitioners / Ericson Pereira, Samuel Jorge Moyses, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio, Daniel Komarchewski Mendes, Diego Sgarbi da Silva, Everdan Carneiro, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio Hardy, Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann. - (PLoS One 14 (2019) 10 (16 October); p. 1-13)

  • PMID: 31618245
  • PMCID: PMC6795452
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223384


Erratum in:

Correction: Anabolic steroids among resistance training practitioners / Ericson Pereira, Samuel Jorge Moyses, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio, Daniel Komarchewski Mendes, Diego Sgarbi da Silva, Everdan Carneiro, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio Hardy, Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann. - (PLoS One 14 (2019) 12 (9 December); p. 1)

  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226208
  • PMID: 31815955


Abstract

Objective: To compare the use of anabolic steroids (AS), the motivation to use them, their side effects, the source of information and the form in which AS were obtained, the medical follow-up, and the periodic examinations in resistance training practitioners who are either current or former users of AS.

Methods: A prevalence survey was performed in the gyms of the city of Curitiba, including 719 current and former AS users who self-administered a questionnaire. The chi-square and z of proportions (p <0.05) statistical tests were conducted.

Results: Esthetics was the main motivation associated with AS intake, leading to satisfactory results. The information about the form in which to use AS was provided by doctors and AS were either purchased at the pharmacy with a prescription or illegally. Current users reported a higher number of cycles and doses, a longer duration of use, as well as larger economical investments into AS. This shows a higher consumption of such drugs, regardless of the medical follow-up and post-cycle therapy.

Conclusion: Given that a change in the usage pattern was observed when increasing the AS consumption, this should be considered in the elaboration of public policies to inhibit such a trend.

Dried blood spots for anti-doping: Why just going volumetric may not be sufficient

17 Dec 2020

Dried blood spots for anti-doping : Why just going volumetric may not be sufficient / Marc Luginbühl , Stefan Gaugler. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 13 (2021) 1 (January); p. 69-73)

  • PMID: 33201591
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2977


Abstract

The perspective discusses quantitative DBS analysis for anti-doping testing in an athletic population and why only using volumetric sampling for this subgroup might not be enough. It presents examples to highlight where HCT variations occur, followed by a whole blood to plasma ratio and an HCT extraction bias discussion. Finally, options to correct for the HCT bias are presented.

How the love of muscle can break a heart: Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, metabolic and cardiovascular health

2 Dec 2020

How the love of muscle can break a heart: Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, metabolic and cardiovascular health / Deaglan McCullough, Richard Webb, Kevin J. Enright, Katie E. Lane, Jim McVeigh, Claire E. Stewart, Ian G. Davies. - (Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (2020) 2 December; p. 1-17)

  • PMID: 33269425
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11154-020-09616-y


Abstract

It is estimated 6.4% of males and 1.6% of females globally use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), mostly for appearance and performance enhancing reasons. In combination with resistance exercise, AAS use increases muscle protein synthesis resulting in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and increased performance. Primarily through binding to the androgen receptor, AAS exert their hypertrophic effects via genomic, non-genomic and anti-catabolic mechanisms. However, chronic AAS use also has a detrimental effect on metabolism ultimately increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Much research has focused on AAS effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins, with abnormal concentrations of these associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This clustering of interconnected abnormalities is often referred as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, the aim of this review is to explore the impact of AAS use on mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and markers of MetS. AAS use markedly decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Chronic AAS use also appears to cause higher fasting insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance and possibly higher levels of VAT; however, research is currently lacking on the effects of AAS use on glucose metabolism. While cessation of AAS use can restore normal lipid levels, it may lead to withdrawal symptoms such as depression and hypogonadism that can increase CVD risk. Research is currently lacking on effective treatments for withdrawal symptoms and further long-term research is warranted on the effects of AAS use on metabolic health in males and females.

Final Report of the IBU External Review Commission: Redacted Version

28 Jan 2021

Final Report of the IBU External Review Commission : Redacted Version / IBU External Review Commission. - Salzburg : International Biathlon Union (IBU), 2021


The International Biathlon Union (IBU) has published the final report of the independent External Review Commission (ERC), as a demonstration of the federation’s commitment to ensuring allegations of wrongdoing are thoroughly investigated in a fair and transparent process.

The IBU Executive Board appointed the ERC, chaired by Jonathan Taylor QC, in November 2018 to conduct a full investigation into the allegations made against former IBU President Anders Besseberg and former IBU Secretary General Nicole Resch.

Following an exhaustive investigation, the ERC concluded that both Mr Besseberg and Ms Resch have cases to answer for breach of the IBU’s rules, based on their apparent protection of Russian interests, particularly in the anti-doping context, without good justification.

Parts of the public version of the report have had to be redacted for legal reasons. The ERC has supplied a full unredacted copy of the report, together with all supporting evidence, to the Biathlon Integrity Unit (BIU).

WADA - Guidance for testing during COVID-19 pandemic

25 Nov 2020

Guidance for testing during COVID-19 pandemic / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020


As a follow up to its initial COVID-19 testing guidance for Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs) published on 6 May, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) provides an updated document, which has been renamed “Guidance for Testing during COVID-19 Pandemic”. This new Guidance was revised following a thorough review by WADA’s Strategic Testing Expert Group, with input from the World Health Organization and a group of National Anti-Doping Organizations.

The Guidance reflects the latest scientific knowledge on the evolving pandemic; as well as, the impact of COVID-19 on ADOs to date that was collected via WADA’s survey carried out in September 2020. It outlines how ADOs can best operate their testing programs in line with globally recommended health and hygiene procedures to protect the health and safety of athletes and sample collection personnel; and, in line with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

The Guidance includes the following enhancements:

  • A detailed assessment process to determine the level of sample collection that can take place;
  • Steps and procedures that an ADO should put in place prior to conducting a sample collection session;
  • Additional direction on how to prioritize testing and athletes, plus measures for conducting In-Competition testing; and
  • The testing of sample collection personnel for COVID-19 as an additional risk mitigation measure for ADOs to consider.


WADA remains available to assist ADOs in supporting and monitoring their anti-doping program implementation and will continue to publish updates regarding its response to COVID-19 as the situation evolves.

CAS 2019_A_6465 WADA vs ISU & Vitali Mikhailov

30 Sep 2020

CAS 2019/A/6465 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) v. International Skating Union (ISU) & Vitali Mikhailov

Related case:

ISU 2019 ISU vs Vitali Mikhailov
August 12, 2019

In April 2019 the International Skating Union (ISU) had reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Belarussian Athlete Vitali Mikhailov after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Higenamine.

After notification the Athlete admitted the violation, denied the intentional use of the substance and explained that he had purchased in Canada a pre-workout supplement in a sports nutrition store. He mentioned the use of this supplement on the Doping Control Form and acknowledged that he was unaware that this supplement contained a prohibited substance.

The ISU Disciplinary Commission considered this case and concluded that a value of 7 ng/mL of Higenamine should not have been reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding. Accordingly no weight can be given to a sanction flowing from it. Therefore the ISU Disciplinary Commission decided on 12 August 2019 to dismiss the case against the Athlete.

Hereafter the World Anti-Doing Agency (WADA) appealed the ISU Decision with the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). WADA requested the Panel to set aside the ISU Decision of 12 August 2019 and to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete. WADA accepts that the violation was not intentional but contended that the Athlete acted negligently due to he failed to check his supplement before using.

Further WADA contended that since a positive test for Higenamine has been reported by the Montreal Lab, the presence of a prohibited substance constitutes an anti-doping rule violation regardless of the fact that the presence of the substance is below the reporting limit of 10 ng/mL as foreseen in the WADA TD2018MRPL.

The ISU and the Athlete requested the Panel to uphold the findings in first instance of the ISU Disciplinary Commission:

  • that the reporting limit for Higenamine established by Rule 4.0 of the WADA TD 2018MRPL is mandatory;
  • that it was in violation of this rule to report the presence of Higenamine of 7 ng/mL in the Athlete's body as adverse analytical finding; and
  • that therefore the Skater has to be acquitted of the charge to have violated the ISU Anti-Doping Rules and the Appeal dismissed.

The Panel holds that this case centers around one legal question, which is whether the Athlete could be sanctioned for an ADRV when the Prohibited Substance was reported by the Laboratory at levels which are below reporting levels foreseen under Rule 4.0 of the WADA TD2018MRPL.

Considering the arguments of the Parties the Panel concludes that the presence of Higenamine in the Athlete's sample is sufficient for the finding of an anti-doping rule violation under the ISU ADR. Further the Panel concludes that the concentration level of Higenamine in the Athlete's urine was an irrelevant factor to determine the anti-doping rule violation.

The Panel holds that an anti-doping rule violation under the ISU ADR could also be demonstrated since the Athlete had admitted having ingested a Prohibited Substance. Here the Panel considers that the Athlete indeed had admitted the use of a food supplement but not that he had committed an anti-doping rule violation. The matter of a Timely Admission was not raised by the Parties during the procedure.

The Panel finds that it was undisputed that the violation was not intentional but it deems that there are no grounds for No Significant Fault or Negligence since the Athlete failed to researcht his supplement before using it.

Therefore The Court of Arbitration for Sports decides on 30 September 2020 that:

  1. The Appeal filed by WADA against the International Skating Union on 19 September 2019 against the decision rendered on 12 August 2019 by the Disciplinary Commission of the International Skating Union is upheld.
  2. The decision rendered on 12 August 2019 by the Disciplinary Commission of the International Skating Union is set aside.
  3. Vitali Mikhailov is found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation.
  4. Vitali Mikhailov is sanctioned with a two-year period of ineligibility starting on the date of this Award.
  5. All competitive results obtained by Mr. Vitali Mikhailov on 2 March 2019 and any other results achieved at the 2019 ISU World Allround Speed Skating Championships in Calgary, Canada, are disqualified, with all of the resulting consequences, including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.
  6. The Award is pronounced without costs, except for the Court Office fee of CHF 1,000 (one thousand Swiss francs) paid by WADA, which is retained by the Court of Arbitration for Sports.
  7. ISU is ordered to contribute CHF 3,000 to WADA's legal fees and costs.
  8. All further motions and requests for relief are dismissed.

ISU 2020 ISU vs Chrysta Rands

15 May 2020

In February 2020 the International Skating Union (ISU) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the American skater Chrysta Rands after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Canrenone. After notification the Athlete filed a statement in her defence and she was heard for the ISU Disciplinary Commission.

The Athlete gave a prompt admission and denied the intentional use of the substance. She requested for a reduced santion and argued that she was tested before without issues. She explained with medical information that during the season she had used the medication Spironolactone prescribed by her dermatologist as treatment for her adult acne.

Both the Athlete and her dermatologist were unaware that this medication contained a prohibited substance. She acknowledged that she had not checked her medication before using and that she forgot to mention her acne medication on the Doping Control Form.

The Disciplinary Commission concludes that the Athlete had committed an anti-doping rule violation as a result of her use of a prescribed medication without a TUE. The Commission accepts that the violation was not intentional and that the Athlete established grounds for No Significant Fault or Negligence.

Therefore the ISU Disciplinary Commission decides on 15 May 2020 to impose a reduced sanction on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. 2 February 2020, and ending on 31 December 2020.

ADAK 2020 ADAK vs Jane Wanjiru Muriuki

3 Dec 2020

In February 2020 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Jane Wanjiru Muriuki after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Prednisolone / Prednisone.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the case was setlled by the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal based on the written submissions of the parties.

The Athlete admitted the violation and denied the intentional use of the substance. She explained with medical evidence that she had used prescribed medication as treatment for her condition and had mentioned her medication on the Doping Control Form. She acknowledged that she had not checked her medication before using nor that she had informed her doctor that she is an athlete subjected to doping control.

Based on the evidence in this case the Panel accepts that the violation was not intentional and that the Athlete gave a prompt admission. She established how the prohibited substance had entered her system and mentioned her medication on the Doping Control Form. Further the Panel considers that she failed to apply for a TUE and acted negligently.

Therefore the Tribunald decides on 3 December 2020 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 1 December 2019.

ADAK 2019 ADAK vs Paul Kariuki Mwangi

19 Jan 2021

In August 2019 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Paul Kariuki Mwangi after his sample tested positive for the prohibtied substance Methylprednisolone.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and the case was settled by the Kenyan Sports Disputes Tribunal based on the written submissions of the parties

The Athlete admitted the violation and denied the intentional use of the substance. He explained with medical information that he had used prescribed medication as treatment for his allergies and was unaware that he needed a TUE. He acknowledged that he didn't check his medication before using nor informed his doctor that he is an athlete subjected to doping control.

Considering the evidence in this case the Panel accepts that the violation was not intentional and considers that he gave a prompt admission and established the source of the positive test. Further the Panel finds that he acted negligently since he failed to check his medication and neither informed his doctor that he is an athlete.

Therefore the Tribunal decides to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 7 August 2019.

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