FINA 2020 FINA vs Volodimyr Voitenko

28 Jan 2021

In June 2020 the International Swimming Federation (FINA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Ukrainian swimmer Volodimyr Voitenko after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Hydrochlorthiazide without a TUE. 

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by FINA. Hereafter in July 2020 his application for a retroactive TUE was denied by the FINA TUE Committee. The case was settled by the FINA Doping Panel based on the written submissions of the parties.

In his defence the Athlete submitted that he suffered from Hypertension and demonstrated with medical evidence that he had used prescribed medication as treatment. He stated that he was unaware that his medication contained a prohibited substance. He asserted that he never had received anti-doping education and acknowledged that he had not checked his medication before using nor mentioned it on the Doping Control Form.

The Panel finds that the Athlete had committed an anti-doping rule violation as a result of his use of a medication that contained a prohibited substance without a valid TUE.

The Panel accepts that the violation was not intentional and that the Athlete established how the substance had entered his system. The Panel considers the circumstances in this case and holds that he gave a prompt admission and that he had not received any anti-doping education before he was tested for the first time.

Further the Panel considers that the Athlete suffered from a serious medical condition and that his medication was not known as performance enhancing. Nevertheless he acted with a degree of fault since he failed to check his medication before using it.

Therefore the FINA Anti-Doping Panel decides on 28 January 2021 to impose an 8 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on 17 February 2020.

iNADO Update #2021-02

1 Feb 2021

iNADO Update (2020) 02 (1 February)
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Macho Man: Narcissism, Homophobia, Agency, Communion, and Authoritarianism - A Comparative Study Among Israeli Bodybuilders and a Control Group

1 Jul 2003

Macho Man : Narcissism, Homophobia, Agency, Communion, and Authoritarianism - A Comparative Study Among Israeli Bodybuilders and a Control Group / Gidi Rubinstein. - (Psychology of Men & Masculinity 4 (2003) 2 (July); p. 100-110)

  • DOI: 10.1037/1524-9220.4.2.100


The present study quantitatively examined the ethnographic social–psychological profile suggested by A. M. Klein (1993) for American bodybuilders using Israeli bodybuilders. Eighty male gym trainees and 80 men who have never trained completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Bem’s Sex Role Inventory, the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (AHS) and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scales, and a demographic questionnaire. The bodybuilders showed the highest levels of narcissism and traits socially desirable for men and exhibited the highest scores on both agenetic and communal traits. Their AHS and RWA scores did not significantly differ from the other 2 groups, but their political affiliation was significantly more right wing. Cultural and methodological differences between Klein’s study and the present study as well as personality factors involved in bodybuilding are discussed.

A Comparison of Health Risk Behavior in Adolescent Users of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids, by Gender and Athlete Status

1 Dec 2002

A Comparison of Health Risk Behavior in Adolescent Users of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids, by Gender and Athlete Status / Kathleen E. Miller, Grace M. Barnes, Don Sabo, Merrill J. Melnick,  Michael P. Farrell. - (Sociology of Sport Journal 19 (2002) 4 ; 385-402)

  • DOI: 10.1123/ssj.19.4.385

Contrary to popular assumption, adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid use is not limited to serious male athletes. This paper examines the relationships among gender, athletic participation, and health-related problem behaviors among adolescent steroid users. Regression analyses were performed on a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 high school students (the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey), of whom nearly 500 had used steroids. Compared to nonusers, steroid users were significantly more likely to report substance use, suicidal behavior, and sexual risk-taking; however, patterns of risk behavior varied by the user’s athletic status and gender. After controlling for age, race, ethnicity, and parental education, both athletic participation and female gender were negatively associated with most risk behaviors among users of anabolic steroids.

Psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids. An update

23 Oct 2012

Psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids. An update M.S. Bahrke, C.E. Yesalis 3rd, J.E. Wright. - (Sports Medicine 22 (1996) 6 (December) ; p. 367-390)

  • PMID: 8969015
  • DOI: 10.2165/00007256-199622060-00005


Endogenous testosterone levels have been linked to aggressive behaviour in both animals and humans. Studies administering moderate doses of exogenous testosterone for contraceptive and clinical purposes reveal essentially no adverse effects on male sexual and aggressive behaviour. However, investigations and case reports of athletes, usually involving higher doses, demonstrate an association between anabolic-androgenic steroid use and affective and psychotic syndromes and psychological dependence. Efforts to study the psychological and behavioural effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids are complicated by a variety of methodological limitations. Only 3 prospective, blinded studies demonstrating aggression or adverse overt behaviour resulting from anabolic-androgenic steroid use have been reported. With estimates of over 1 million past or current users in the US, an extremely small percentage of individuals using anabolic-androgenic steroids appear to experience mental disturbances severe enough to result in clinical treatment and medical case reports. Even among those so affected, the roles of previous psychiatric history, genetic susceptibility to addictions or mental disorders, environmental and peer influences, and individual expectations remain unclear.

Personality, Mood, and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Anabolic Steroid Users

1 Dec 1991

Personality, Mood, and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Anabolic Steroid Users /  Howard B. Moss, George L. Panzak, Ralph E. Tarter. - (American Journal on Addiction 1 (1992) 4 (Fall); p. 315-324)


The relationship between use of anabolic stemids (ASS) and specific personality dimensions was assessed in 50 male bodybuilders who were current or past users compared with a sample of 25 age-matched, “natural” male My builders who never used ASS. No personality differences were found. me relationship between current AS use and the presence of variations in mood state, hostility, and psychiatric symptomatology was then evaluated. Current AS users scored higher than non-users only on psychometric scales measuring hostility, aggression, and somatization. Thus, reports that AS use was associated with significant psychopathology, other than aggression and somatization, could not be confirmed.

Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development

26 Nov 2008

Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development / Ramesh Narayanan, Michael L. Mohler, Casey E. Bohl, Duane D. Miller, James T. Dalton. - (Nuclear Receptor Signaling (2008) 26 November; p. 1-26)

  • PMID: 19079612
  • PMCID: PMC2602589
  • DOI: 10.1621/nrs.06010


Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the function of several organs including primary and accessory sexual organs, skeletal muscle, and bone, making it a desirable therapeutic target. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) bind to the AR and demonstrate osteo- and myo-anabolic activity; however, unlike testosterone and other anabolic steroids, these nonsteroidal agents produce less of a growth effect on prostate and other secondary sexual organs. SARMs provide therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, or end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty, and hypogonadism. This review summarizes the current standing of research and development of SARMs, crystallography of AR with SARMs, plausible mechanisms for their action and the potential therapeutic indications for this emerging class of drugs.

A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids

1 Sep 1996

A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids / C.J. Cooper, T.D. Noakes, T. Dunne, M.I. Lambert, K. Rochford. - (British journal of sports medicine 30 (1996) 3 (1 September); p. 246-250)

  • PMID: 8889121
  • PMCID: PMC1332342
  • DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.30.3.246


Objective: (1) To assess the personality profiles of the anabolic androgenic steroid users (AAS) and (2) to determine whether valid premorbid personality traits could be obtained from cross sectional assessment using multisource data.

Methods: The first author became a participant-observer in a group of body builders. An experimental group of body builders who had been using AAS for no more than 18 months (n = 12) was identified. A group of control subjects, each of whom claimed that he did not, and never had, used AAS (n = 12) was also recruited during this period. Key informants played a crucial role in recruiting subjects representative of the AAS and body building communities. An interview schedule based on the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM3-R) personality disorder criteria was conducted with each subject. Additional data were obtained from an AAS using informant and significant others including family and friends.

Results: The user group was significantly heavier than the control group and showed abnormal personality traits, in contrast to the control group. Personality traits of AAS users before the onset of AAS use, assessed retrospectively, were not different from personality traits of control subjects. There were significant differences between the before and after personality traits in AAS user group.

Conclusions: The results suggest (1) that AAS use is associated with significant disturbances in personality profile, and (2) that these personality disturbances are possibly the direct result of AAS use.

Motives for illicit use of doping substances among athletes calling a national antidoping phone-help service: an exploratory study

24 Aug 2011

Motives for illicit use of doping substances among athletes calling a national antidoping phone-help service : an exploratory study / Jean Bilard, Gregory Ninot, Denis Hauw. - (Substance Use & Misuse 46 (2011) 4; p. 359-367)

  • PMID: 20735214
  • DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2010.502553


This study aimed to construct a hierarchy of motives linked to doping behaviors. Between 2000 and 2005, calls to a national antidoping phone-help service by 115 cyclists, 203 bodybuilders, and 40 footballers were analyzed. The results showed that the main motives were preserving health for cyclists, increasing muscular strength for bodybuilders, and personal recreation for footballers. However, in contrast to the literature, group influence was low and health preoccupations were high for cyclists; the influence of body image was relatively low for bodybuilders; and footballers cited muscular strength enhancement as a motive. The study's limitations are noted. The prevention campaigns therefore need to be specific.

Investigation of stability of selective androgen receptor modulators in urine

13 May 2020

Investigation of stability of selective androgen receptor modulators in urine /  Emiliano Ventura, Anna Gadaj, Tom Buckley, Mark H. Mooney. - (Food Additives & Contaminats: Part A 37 (2020) 8 (August); p. 1253-1263)

  • PMID: 32401172
  • DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2020.1757165


Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of new emerging "designer" steroid compounds gaining popularity over more well established anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) amongst both non-professional and elite athletes. Moreover, due to their anabolic activity, SARM compounds may also potentially be abused in livestock animals to increase meat production. Consequently, SARM residues should be monitored as a part of routine testing employed within both anti-doping and drug residue laboratories. Since only a limited amount of information on SARM compound stability is currently available within the peer-reviewed literature, this study reports a practical approach to assess optimal storage conditions for 15 SARM compounds in solvent solutions (standard stock and intermediate mixed standard solutions) stored at -20°C for up to 1 year, as well as in a range of urine test matrices (bovine, equine, canine and human) under frozen (-20°C, -80°C) storage for up to 20 weeks and post freeze-thaw cycles. Moreover, SARM storage stability within solvent extracts was assessed at -20°C (0-4 weeks) and 4°C (0-2 weeks). Findings demonstrate that SARM analytes are stable in reference solutions when stored at -20°C, apart from PF-06260414 (stock solution) which should be stored at lower temperatures (e.g. -80°C). A limited degree of compound instability was observed for a number of SARM analytes in urine both when stored at -20°C, and after repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Moreover, SARM compounds within reconstituted urine solvent extracts were found to be effectively stable when stored for up to 4 weeks at -20°C and for 2 weeks at 4°C. The long-term stability testing data reported here will inform the more timely and effective development and validation of analytical methods for SARM residue detection and analysis, ensuring confidence in findings from monitoring of livestock animals and anti-doping processes.

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