Perceived anabolic–androgenic steroid use is associated with perceived neuroticism

11 Feb 2015

Perceived anabolic–androgenic steroid use is associated with perceived neuroticism / Dominic Sagoe, Kristin Huang, Helge Molde, Cecilie S. Andreassen & Ståle Pallesen. - (Journal of Substance Use 21 (2016) 3; p. 263-267)

  • DOI: 10.3109/14659891.2015.1009510


Ratings of the perceived personality (Five-Factor Model) of an anabolic–androgenic steroid(s) (AAS) user, an erythropoietin (EPO) user, a protein powder user and a nonuser of these ergogenic aids were investigated. The sample of 328 (236 females) non-substance use participants providing the ratings was students aged 18–52 years. They were drawn from three Norwegian higher education institutions and were randomized to four independent experimental conditions, each comprising a specific scenario/description [food (n = 82), protein powder (n = 83), EPO (n = 83), and AAS (n = 80)] similar in number, age and gender distribution. Participants in all conditions rated their protagonist on the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated, consistent with our prediction, that the protagonist who consumed food was perceived as least neurotic whereas the AAS and EPO protagonists were rated similarly on neuroticism. The food and protein powder protagonists were rated similarly on openness albeit higher than the EPO protagonist. The food protagonist was regarded as more agreeable than protagonists of the ergogenic aids. Our findings indicate that perceived AAS use negatively impacts the construal of the perceived user’s personality or social image. Implications of findings are discussed.

Athletes’ perceptions of performance enhancing substance user and non-user prototypes

15 Apr 2012

Athletes’ perceptions of performance enhancing substance user and non-user prototypes / L.Whitaker, J.Long, A. Petróczi, S.H.Backhouse. - (Performance Enhancement & Health 1 (2021) 1 (August); p. 28-34)

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2012.03.002



This study explored athletes’ perceived prototypes of performance enhancing substance (PES) users and non-users to facilitate a broader understanding of the risk/protective factors for doping use.


A cross-sectional study was conducted involving n = 147 current/ex-competitive athletes. Following ethical approval, athletes (mean age = 25.51, SD = 8.47 years; 40.8% male) from 30 sports completed an online open-ended questionnaire. Participants were required to describe their perceived positive and negative images of PES users and non-users. Inductive content analysis established the main themes within the data.


The perceived prototypes of PES users and non-users were most commonly related to: motivation to succeed, confidence, commitment, temperament, fear of competition, rule abiding, reliability and sociability. Characteristically, PES users were seen as motivated, confident, unreliable and rule breakers, whereas non-users were perceived to be role models, reliable and risk averse.


The results suggest athletes’ perceptions of PES user characteristics may not be solely negative. Athletes who perceive PES user prototypes favourably may be vulnerable to dopingvia motivation that is elicited from future possible selves. Therefore, athletes’ perceptions of PES user and non-user prototypes may act as risk/protective factors for doping.


Tailored anti-doping should target athletes’ prototype perceptions to enhance the prevention of doping in sport.

Prevalence and correlates of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in a nationally representative sample of 17-year-old Norwegian adolescents

29 Sep 2014

Prevalence and correlates of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in a nationally representative sample of 17-year-old Norwegian adolescents / Dominic Sagoe, Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Helge Molde, Torbjørn Torsheim, Ståle Pallesen. - (Substance Use & Misuse 50 (2015) 2; 139-147)

  • PMID: 25265519
  • DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2014.958859


Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been identified as a serious public health problem.

Objectives: This study investigates the prevalence and correlates of AAS use among Norwegian adolescents.

Methods: In 2012, a nationally representative sample of 2,055 17-year-old adolescents (963 males and 1,088 females) participated in a survey. The response rate was 70.4%. In addition to questions about AAS use, participants completed the Parental Monitoring Scale, the Family Relations/Cohesion Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test C, the Mini-International Personality Item Pool-Five-Factor Model, the Eysenck Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale, the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking, the Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. They also answered questions about demography, gambling, smoking, snus, and narcotic use. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze the data.

Results: The lifetime prevalence of AAS use was 0.30% (0.52% in males and 0.09% in females), while current prevalence was 0.25%. Moreover, 19.39% of the sample reported having an acquaintance who used or had used AAS. Having an acquaintance who used or had used AAS was significantly related to snus use, depression, aggression, extraversion, and conscientiousness in both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Conclusions/Importance: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of AAS use among Norwegian adolescents and denote the significance of social, personality, and health factors in adolescents' exposure to AAS milieu.

Differential analysis of the doping behaviour templates in three types of sports

1 Nov 2012

Differential analysis of the doping behaviour templates in three types of sports / Jelena Rodek, Kemal Idrizović, Natasa Zenić, Benjamin Perasović, Miran Kondric. - (Collegium Antropologicum 37 (2013) Suppl 2 (May); 211-217)

  • PMID: 23914509


Conducted researches recognize various risk factors, as well as protective factors against doping behaviour in different sports i.e. sports disciplines or activities. The main goal of this research was to identify the correlation between selected socio-demographic, health-related, and sports-related predictors with doping factors in three different types of sports, which are (1) highly energetic demanding sports (weightlifting), (2) highly technical demanding sports (racquet sports), and (3) highly tactical demanding sports (sailing). The research consisted of three separate studies, each one of them researching one of the sports. The sample of subjects included altogether 293 athletes, senior level competitors (older than 18years of age). In total, the sample comprised three homogenous sub-samples, as follows: athletes in highly energetic demanding sports (weightlifters and power lifters; N=27), athletes in highly technical demanding sports (table tennis, tennis and badminton players; N=188), and athletes in highly tactical demanding sports (sailing; N=78). The first study involved weightlifters where we should point out the existence of high doping behaviour In this study, religiousness was interpreted as the most significant protective factor against doping behaviour, while sports factors are not found to be significantly related to doping. The study involving racquet sport athletes suggests a high risk of doping behaviour among those athletes who observe doping behaviour in their sport. We noticed low levels of athletes' trust in their coaches' and physicians' opinions on doping issues. This is an issue which should be researched in the future, because the underlying cause has not been studied as yet. Briefly, it seems that either the athletes are not convinced of their coaches '/physicians' expertise regarding doping issues, and/or they do not believe in their good intentions. It is particularly important, as the previous research has shown that with the increased trust in coaches and physicians, the chance that an athlete will use doping decreases. As expected, it is characteristic for sailing that it has a low likelihood of potential doping behaviour, although the consumption of dietary supplements is high. Substance abuse in sports spreads beyond those that enhance athletic performance. All of these issues should be studied in more detail in the future and, if appropriately validated, incorporated into anti-doping intervention programs.

Voetbal en doping

1 Aug 2021

Voetbal en doping / Herman Ram. - (Voetbal- & Sportjuridische Zaken (2021) 1; p. 10-16)

  • doi: 10.5553/VSZ/277267382021001001003


Anders dan veel anekdotiek doet vermoeden worden in het voetbal relatief veel dopingcontroles uitgevoerd, maar worden daarbij betrekkelijk weinig dopingovertredingen vastgesteld. De wel vastgestelde overtredingen worden op dezelfde basis afgehandeld als in andere sporten gebeurt. Tuchtrechtelijke uitspraken worden echter zelden gepubliceerd, wat het verzamelen van objectieve data bemoeilijkt.

Image of the month. Gymnasium acne: a fulminant doping acne

1 Jan 1998

L'image du mois. Acne gymnasium : une acne fulminante dopee = Image of the month. Gymnasium acne: a fulminant doping acne / Gérald Pierard. - (Revue Médicale de Liège 53 (1998) 8 ; p. 441-443)

  • PMID: 9810201

Key words:

  • Acne Vulgaris/chemically induced/pathology ;
  • Adult ;
  • Anabolic Agents/adverse effects ;
  • Doping in Sports ;
  • Humans ; Male ;
  • Nandrolone/adverse effects/analogs & derivatives ;
  • Weight Lifting

Natural occurrence of steroid hormones

29 Jul 1998

Natural occurrence of steroid hormones / Sonja Hartmann, Markus Lacorn, Hans Steinhart. - (Food Chemistry 62 (1998) 1 (May); p. 7-20)

  • DOI: 10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00150-7


The natural occurrence of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, testosterone, 17β-estradiol and estrone in food was investigated in a survey of the German market basket. The main metabolic precursors, intermediates and metabolites (pregnenolone, androstenedione, hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, 17α-estradiol and estriol) were also included in the investigation. Particular attention was paid to DHEA, which is said to have anti-aging properties. Analysis was carried out by gas chromato-graphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The steroid patterns of pork, meat products, fish and poultry resemble those known for beef. Milk and milk products reflect the hormone profile of female cattle with high amounts of progesterone, which accumulates with increasing milk fat content. Milk products supply about 60–80% of ingested female sex steroids. Eggs are a considerable source of any of the investigated steroids and contribute to the nutritional hormone intake in the same order as meat and fish (10–20%). In vegetable food no estrogens could be detected. Plants supply testosterone in the same order as meat and milk products (20–40%) though. They contain considerable amounts of hormone precursors as well (contribution to DHEA supply: about 80%). In comparison to the human daily production of steroid hormones the nutritional supply (about 10 μgd−1 progesterone, 0.05 μg d−1 testosterone, 0.1 μg d−1 estrogens, 0.5 μg d−1 DHEA) is insignificant.

Identifying best-practice amongst health professionals who work with people using image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) through participatory action research

1 Apr 2021

Identifying best-practice amongst health professionals who work with people using image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) through participatory action research / Katinka van de Ven, Ian Boardley, Martin Chandler. - (Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health (2021) 1 April)

  • DOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2021.1898457


The use of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs), such as anabolic-androgenic steroids to grow muscle mass, is a growing public health concern in the UK and across the globe. An important indicator is the rapid rise of people who inject steroids accessing needle and syringe programmes (NSPs). However, NSP workers and other health professionals often report having a lack of knowledge regarding IPEDs, and not feeling confident when engaging with this group. Adding to this is a lack of evidence-based educational/training materials, making it difficult for health professionals to improve their skills in this area. Using a participatory action research approach (PAR), we collaborated with health professionals who had experience in working with this client group (n=52), particularly NSP staff, to address this knowledge gap. Consistent with our PAR approach, health professionals were involved in all stages of this research, from establishing the research questions through to disseminating the findings. To identify current best practices, a workshop was organised to collaboratively determine approaches to improve professional development in this area and to ultimately facilitate better engagement with people who use IPEDs. The participating health professionals described issues and solutions in relation to the collection of clinical data, staff training, client contact and service provision – with community engagement being mentioned as a key element to improve and create awareness of health services, and to strengthen community partnerships. By adopting a PAR approach, we have co-produced guidance on effective engagement with consumers that is both evidence-based and experience-informed.

The pseudoendogenous anabolic steroid 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione does not occur naturally in Rhodiola rosea L. radix and rhizome

22 Dec 2017

The pseudoendogenous anabolic steroid 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione does not occur naturally in Rhodiola rosea L. radix and rhizome / Juan Da, Lin Yang, Wan-Ying Wu, De-an Guo, Alexander G. Panossian. - (Phytochemistry Letters
23 (2018) February; p. 155-163)

  • DOI:10.1016/j.phytol.2017.12.007



Rhodiola rosea L. roots and rhizome (RRR) extracts are used as dietary supplements for temporary relief of symptoms of stress, such as fatigue, sensation of weakness, and for improvement of mental and cognitive function. RRR containing products are also of interest to sports nutrition experts and antidoping authorities. It has been suggested that nutritional supplements containing Rhodiola rosea extracts be examined for the presence of (pseudo-) endogenous steroids, specifically for the presence of 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) which can potentially lead to adverse analytical findings (AAFs) in doping controls.

Aim of the study:

The aim of the present study was to detect and quantify ADD in Rhodiola roots and rhizomes collected in various geographical locations of North America, Europe, and Asia.


ADD was not found in RRR by any of three methods used in this study. No peaks corresponding to ADD in chromatograms of RRR extract were detected at the limit of quantification corresponding to 1.6 ng/g of ADD in dry rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea.


The anabolic steroid 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione was not detectable in the Rhodiola rosea roots and rhizomes, at least not present in amounts which may be a concern for athletes who want to avoid the consumption of this anabolic agent with Rhodiola dietary supplementation.

SARM-S4 and metabolites detection in sports drug testing: a case report

3 Aug 2011

SARM-S4 and metabolites detection in sports drug testing: a case report / Elia Grata, Laurent Perrenoud, Martial Saugy, Norbert Baume. - (Forensic Science International 213 (2011) 1-3 (10 December); p. 104-108)

  • PMID: 21816554
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.07.014


Recently, pharmaceutical industry developed a new class of therapeutics called Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) to substitute the synthetic anabolic drugs used in medical treatments. Since the beginning of the anti-doping testing in sports in the 1970s, steroids have been the most frequently detected drugs mainly used for their anabolic properties. The major advantage of SARMs is the reduced androgenic activities which are the main source of side effects following anabolic agents' administration. In 2010, the Swiss laboratory for doping analyses reported the first case of SARMs abuse during in-competition testing. The analytical steps leading to this finding are described in this paper. Screening and confirmation results were obtained based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. Additional information regarding the SARM S-4 metabolism was investigated by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QTOF-MS).

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