“The process isn’t a case of report it and stop”: Athletes’ lived experience of whistleblowing on doping in sport

11 Dec 2018

“The process isn’t a case of report it and stop” : Athletes’ lived experience of whistleblowing on doping in sport / Kelsey Erickson, Laurie B. Patterson, Susan H. Backhouse

  • Sport Management Review 22 (November 2019), p. 724-735
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.smr.2018.12.001


Abstract

Whistleblowing is effective for exposing doping in sport, garnering increased support and promotion within the global anti-doping community. However, limited attention has been afforded towards understanding the doping whistleblowing process. In response, the authors convey a sense of the whistleblowing context by using the actual words of whistleblowers to illuminate their experience. To achieve this aim, the authors have adopted a narrative approach. Three doping whistleblowers were interviewed regarding their lived experiences of whistleblowing on doping and the data has been represented in the form of one composite creative non-fiction story. The story narrates the whistleblowing experience as a process whereby individuals must (a) determine what they witnessed and experienced was doping, (b) make the decision and take action to report it, and (c) deal with the myriad of consequences and emotions. It also highlights the dilemma faced by whistleblowers who are likely equally compelled to adhere to the moral of loyalty and fairness; yet in this context they are unable to do both. Stemming from the story presented and the forms of retribution experienced, the authors offer practical suggestions for sporting organisations to address in order to empower others to whistleblow on doping in sport. Specifically, organisations should establish and implement whistleblowing policies that: (a) provide protection for whistleblowers, (b) mandate whistleblowing education, and (c) identify an independent person for individuals to seek guidance and support from before, during and following the act of whistleblowing.

Development of moral disengagement and self-regulatory efficacy assessments relevant to doping in sport and exercise

6 Feb 2018

Development of moral disengagement and self-regulatory efficacy assessments relevant to doping in sport and exercise / D. Boardley, Alan L. Smith, John Mills, Jonathan Grix, Ceri Wynne, Luke Wilkins

  • Psychology of Sport and Exercise 36 (May 2018), p. 57-70
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.01.007


Abstract

Objectives

To develop Moral Disengagement (MD) and Self-Regulatory Efficacy (SRE) instruments relevant to doping in sport and exercise and provide evidence for the validity and reliability of instrument scores.

Design

Cross-sectional, correlational.

Methods

Data were collected from male and female team- and individual-sport athletes and corporate- and bodybuilding-gym exercisers. Two samples (nsample 1 = 318; nsample 2 = 300) were utilized in instrument development and score validation and another (nsample 3 = 101) in examining test-retest reliability and stability of scores. Samples 1 and 2 responded to the newly developed items alongside others assessing theoretically-related variables, whereas Sample 3 completed the new instruments on two separate occasions.

Results

Factor analyses identified the final items and dimensional structures for the Doping Moral Disengagement Scale (DMDS), Doping Moral Disengagement Scale–Short (DMDS–S) and Doping Self-Regulatory Efficacy Scale (DSRES). The DMDS has six lower- and one higher-order factor, whereas the DMDS-S and DSRES are unidimensional. These structures were invariant by sex and sport/exercise context. Evidence supporting external validity, test-retest reliability, and stability of scores was also provided.

Conclusion

This research developed and provided evidence of score validity and internal consistency for three instruments relevant to doping in sport and exercise.

Glocal fitness doping: Policy, practice and prevention in the United States and Sweden

30 Jun 2019

Glocal fitness doping: Policy, practice and prevention in the United States and Sweden / Jesper Andreasson, April Henning

  • Performance Enhancement & Health 6 (2019) 3-4 (June), p. 103-110
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2018.11.001


Abstract

Situated within a framework of a globalized gym and fitness culture, this paper aims to investigate and compare how fitness doping can be understood in relation to, and how it is affected by, different national and local contexts. Representing different forms of welfare state regimes, the comparative analysis focuses on policy, practice, and prevention in the United States and Sweden. The findings indicate, among other things, how national level policy and implementation reflect local priorities, understandings, and values. Sweden’s choices form a pattern reflecting the priority of protecting the collective good over individual pursuits. Conversely, that the U.S. does not police outside formally governed competitions in sports or in criminal contexts. Further, U.S. bodybuilders do not feel targeted for their appearance in the same ways, illustrating the priority of individual choice. Further, the paper discusses how each country implements anti-doping in ways consistent with global policies, but are also informed by various local understandings and values. This interplay between the supranational structures and locally diverse implementation is not only complex, but can seem contradictory as each locality partly remains within a global system of anti-doping in sport, and partly operates outside this context. We suggest glocal fitness doping needs to be understood as a process through which global ideals, organisations, and more contribute to influencing local and national prevention policies and cultures, and vice versa.

IPED in Recreational Sports

27 Apr 2022

IPED in Recreational Sports / Samuel Iff, Ingo Butzke, Michael Zitzmann, Roger Schneiter, Manuela Hunziker, Boris B. Quednow, Malte Christian Claussen

  • Praxis 111 (2022) 6 (April), p. e345-e349
  • PMID: 35473330
  • DOI: 10.1024/1661-8157/a003873


Abstract

IPED consumers seek medical advice when uncertain as to their use. Due to shame or fear of stigmatization IPED consumers are often reluctant to talk about their drug use; they fear prejudice and a lack of experience when caring for this specific patient group. In order to strengthen trust, a non-judgmental, non-stigmatizing and supportive attitude is essential. The interaction should primarily lead to an understanding of why AAS are being used, what the patient's concerns are, and why medical help is being sought, without judgment or condemnation of the behavior. If no motivation to abstain from drug use is found during the consultation, harm reduction should be sought and the consequences of use addressed. Regular talks and active harm reduction can increase the confidence in evidence-based treatment to achieve personal motivation to abstain under medical supervision.

Interdisciplinary and Psychiatric Treatment of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Users

27 Apr 2022

Interdisciplinary and Psychiatric Treatment of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Users / Ingo Butzke, Samuel Iff, Michael Zitzmann, Boris B. Quednow, Malte Christian Claussen

  • Praxis 111 (2022) 6 (April), p.e339-e344
  • PMID: 35473322
  • DOI: 10.1024/1661-8157/a003868


Abstract

The prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS; anabolic steroids) use in recreational sports is underestimated. Due to the influence of social media, an increase in AAS use in recreational sports and in the general population is to be expected. AAS use is associated with significant physical and mental health consequences, and the psychiatric consequences include the risk of developing addictive behaviour. The widespread stigmatization of AAS use also by professionals often undermines users' trust in physicians and drives them into the arms of so-called "gurus." The tightening of anti-doping practices in sports and an exclusively prohibitive stance have so far failed to convincingly curb the problem in recreational sports. Harm reduction strategies could help patients to get the help they need from primary care providers.

Recognizing IPED Use in Clinical Practice

27 Apr 2022

Recognizing IPED Use in Clinical Practice / Samuell Iff, Roman Gähwiler, Ingo Butzke, Boris B. Quednow, Malte Christian Claussen

  • Praxis 111 (2022) 6 (April), p. e333-e337
  • PMID: 35473328
  • DOI: 10.1024/1661-8157/a003874


Abstract

The non-medical use of image- and performance-enhancing drugs (IPEDs) is widespread in the fitness and bodybuilding scene. The reasons for IPED use are often hedonistic in nature and they are used in so-called "cycles" over several weeks. The most common side effects are: testicular atrophy, acne, hypersexuality, hypertension, gynecomastia, lipid metabolism disorders, mood swings, hair loss, and policythemia. Common consequences following IPED use are: decreased libido, oligo- or azoospermia, and erectile dysfunction. To reduce undesirable side effects and consequences, IPED users often take medications for self-treatment; occasionally IPED users also mention such medications and ask for them in the general medical practice.

JADA Annual Report 2015 (Japan)

24 Jun 2016

2015 (Heisei 27) program report / Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA). - Tokyo : JADA, 2016

NADO Italia Annual Report 2021 (Italy)

1 Mar 2022

Report Attività Antidoping NADO Italia Anno 2020  / Organizzazione Nazionale Antidoping (NADO Italia). - Roma : NADO Italia, 2021

NADO Italia Annual Report 2020 (Italy)

22 Mar 2021

Report Attività Antidoping NADO Italia Anno 2020  / Organizzazione Nazionale Antidoping (NADO Italia). - Roma : NADO Italia, 2021

NADO Italia Annual Report 2019 (Italy)

30 Jun 2020

Report Attività Antidoping NADO Italia Anno 2019 / Organizzazione Nazionale Antidoping (NADO Italia). - Roma : NADO Italia, 2020

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