World Anti-Doping Code 2003 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2003
The World Anti-Doping Code (Code) is the core document that harmonizes anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities around the world. It works in conjunction with six International Standards which aim to foster consistency among anti-doping organizations in various areas: testing; laboratories; Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs); the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods; the protection of privacy and personal information; and Code Compliance by Signatories.
This unified approach addresses problems that previously arose from disjointed and uncoordinated anti-doping efforts, including, among others: a scarcity and splintering of resources required to conduct research and testing; a lack of knowledge about specific substances and procedures being used and to what degree; and an inconsistent approach to sanctions for those athletes found guilty of doping.
Ever since it entered into force on 1 January 2004, the Code has proven to be a powerful and effective tool in the harmonization of anti-doping efforts worldwide. This has been demonstrated by the overwhelming support of governments and sports in accepting the Code, in addition to the growing body of jurisprudence from the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) in supporting the principles of the Code.
The adoption of the Code led to several significant advances in the global fight against doping in sport, including the formalization of certain rules and the clarification of stakeholder responsibilities. This new approach to anti-doping brought consistency to a previously disjointed system.
The Code has also been instrumental in introducing the concept of “non-analytical” rule violations. Non-analytical rule violations have allowed anti-doping organizations to apply sanctions in cases where there is no positive doping sample, but where there may still be evidence that a doping violation has occurred (e.g. through a combination of three missed tests / whereabouts failures; longitudinal testing; evidence brought forward through an investigation).