Combined (urine and blood) doping control from NADA Germany

13 Sep 2012

Ablauf einer Kombikontrolle (Dopingkontrollfilm der NADA)

This video shows a doping control procedure in which an urine sample and a blood sample are obtained. The video is made by NADA Germany and Professional Worldwide Controls (PWC).

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Psychological determinants of doping behaviour through the testimony of sanctioned athletes

1 Jun 2011

Psychological determinants of doping behaviour through the testimony of sanctioned athletes / Mattia Piffaretti

A) The main objective of the study is to gain knowledge about the psychological and psycho-social determinants of their doping behaviour, by interviewing sanctioned athletes.

B) Moreover, the investigation aims to assess how athletes experience the banning period, while identifying their specific needs. With such intelligence, the study aims to launch a new project encompassing:
1) PRIMARY PREVENTION: to enrich the prevention campaigns for young athletes with the testimonials of experienced athletes
2) SECUNDARY PREVENTION: to improve detection of psychological attitudes and risky behaviours in young athletes
3) TERTIARY PREVENTION: to contribute to the set-up of a prevention programme to decrease sanctioned athletes‟ relapse risk and to improve their chances for a sport and/or professional relocation

Summary: Current research indicates motivational orientations (Kleinert and Jüngling, 2007; Donahue et al., 2006), perception of sport‟s culture and attitude towards substance abuse (Ohl et Buissonneau, 2009) and obsessive passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) as possible psychological determinants of deviant behaviour in sports, and more particularly of athletes‟ substance abuse. In this study, 11 athletes who were condemned for their substance abuse by their national or international Federation, and were willing to speak out about their deviant behaviour, were interviewed through a theory-based interview guide. In particular, questions focused on the motivational orientations of the athletes, the perception they have about their environment, and the perception of the challenges like career transitions, injury or competitive pressure. Interview data were analysed sound qualitative research methods.

Main results: First of all, the study allowed to clarify the role of the athletes‟ awareness, sport transition, motivations, stress level and perception of anti-doping and ethical norms in their sporting environment, on the risk to violate the anti-dopoing code. Secundarily, it shed a light on the psychological and emotional reactions of the athletes who are banned from their sport for a long period, while throwing a light on their specific needs, to minimise risks of relapse or psychological distress.

Improving and Proving: A handbook for the evaluation of anti-doping education programmes - working sheet

1 Jan 2009

The working sheet for:

Improving and Proving: A Handbook for the evaluation of anti-doping education programmes

Barrie Houlihan and Sarah Melville
Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy and Institute of Youth Sport,
Loughborough University, UK

Improving and Proving: A Handbook for the evaluation of anti-doping education programmes

1 Jan 2009

A step by step guide to planning an anti-doping education programme

This evaluation guide has been devised for managers responsible for the design and delivery of anti-doping education programmes.
Although the handbook has been designed for use by managers working in NADOs the methods and techniques outlined in the handbook will also be of value to education managers in International Federations and National Sport Organisations (NSOs).
Not only is the handbook intended to help you measure and evaluate the success of your education programme, it is also intended to guide the planning of education programmes

Step One: State the outcomes you want to achieve
Step Two: Identify the inputs you have available
Step Three: Decide the activities that will be produced by the inputs
Step Four: Determine the volume of outputs that can be produced based on the preferred activities and the inputs available
Step Five: Decide how you will evaluate the impact of your activities on intended outcomes

Together against doping

1 Jan 2012

Gemeinsam gegen doping (German title)

The Anti-Doping testing program and education are equally important in NADAs fight against doping. NADA is the National Anti Doping Agency of Germany. “Together against doping” is the new concept for education in sport. This paper contains all education projects we have been working on in 2012. We adapt them to reach and suit different target groups: young and top-level athletes, parents/legal guardians of athletes as well as coaches and teachers, especially in sport related schools. NADA Germany provides several print and new media activities for each target group.

Under 23 cyclists’ openness to doping: understanding the causes of doping behavior among American junior road cyclists with professional aspirations

1 Jan 2008

As described in the initial funding application, I began data collection among under-23 (U23) collegiate cyclists in the Spring of 2008. Overall data collection proceeded much more slowly than initially anticipated. I also experienced resistance to filling out surveys from potential subjects once they heard that WADA had funded the study. Many of the U23 athletes had negative opinions and reactions to WADA. Anecdotally, they seemed to feel that WADA, as an organization, was working against their interests and as one survey participant said, “aren't they on a witch hunt?” I experienced very similar reactions when I surveyed and interviewed American U23 cyclists racing in Europe. Despite these negative reactions I was able to collect 170 valid surveys. I was also able to collect 10 one-hour interviews from U23 cyclists racing professionally as Espoirs.

Compliance to the World Anti-Doping Program: A status evaluation of national sport organizations in Hong Kong

1 Jan 2008

The present study aimed to assess the status of anti-doping works among the Hong Kong NSOs. Apart from this, the organizations’ readiness to change and to initiate / strengthen the anti-doping works was also studied from the point of view of administrator, coach, and committee member. It would appear that a great majority of NSOs in Hong Kong were at the contemplation stage in implementing anti-doping functions and that their major constraints were the limited financial and manpower resources.

Performance-enhancing drug-use among amateur sportsmen and women in Cameroon: A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices

1 Jan 2006

The use of doping drugs in Cameroon is common. Even more common is drug-use among amateur sportsmen and women. Little, if anything at all, is being done to educate, raise awareness and sensitize sportsmen and women in the country about the negative health effects and criminal consequences of drug use in sports. Obtaining scientific evidence on the current situation was evaluated as necessary for informing ongoing and future programs and providing the tools for advocacy on the problem.

This study sought to understand young athletes’ doping behavior, circuits of acquisition of drugs, sources of knowledge, awareness and use of lawful/unlawful substances by young athletes; and to study perceptions regarding Cameroon’s anti-doping measures.

The study was cross-sectional in design and utilized a multi-method data gathering strategy that combined quantitative and qualitative techniques. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 1,600 randomly selected young athletes from 7 major sport federations in Cameroon drawn from four study sites: Yaounde, Douala, Bamenda and Garoua. Questionnaire items addressed the following themes: Knowledge, perceptions of doping, and doping experiences. In addition, an interview guide was used to collect complementary qualitative data from key informants on the following: reasons for doping; strengths and weaknesses of current anti-doping measures; and the role each sector they represent could play to enhance doping prevention. Quantitative data was analysed using EPI Info and SPSS. Qualitative analysis was conducted using AnSWR (Analysis Software for Word-based Records). A content analysis of text based qualitative data allowed for deductive conclusions to be drawn.

Key findings
Knowledge of lawful and unlawful drugs including food complements
Knowledge of lawful drugs (55%), unlawful drugs (93%), and food supplements (84%) associated with sports was common. Study participants cited a wide range of performance enhancing substances but most notably, Banga (74%) and Cocaine (54%) as unlawful. Although there appeared to be an upsurge in doping drug use, doping prevention measures were not rigorously implemented. Only 11% of athletes had seen the country’s anti-doping regulation. In the absence of formal sensitization, athletes were informed about drugs mainly through friends and the media and about negative side effects, by trainers.

Attitudes of athletes towards drug-use
Six percents of athletes believed that athletes dope out of necessity, while 19% believed that doping is essential for success in sports. Fifty four per cent of participants declared that doping use is common within their respective federations. Disciplines most affected by doping were cited to be football, athletics, boxing and cycling. About 34% of study participants said they were aware of colleagues who use drugs, while 41% knew of opponents who took doping drugs to improve their performance. Marijuana (locally known as Banga) (44%), Guronsan (16%), and Cocaine (8%), were the most common doping substances used by athletes. Doping appeared to be approved by many coaches and encouraged by friends. Meanwhile, athletes who avoided doping did so mainly because they feared side-effects and not because they saw doping as unethical and illegal.

Circuits of acquisition of drugs
Sources of acquisition of doping substances included friends, dealers, the market and the pharmacy. More than half of athletes admitted to involuntarily using doping drugs. Managers, coaches, sports medics, as well as relatives were reported to be the main drivers behind the supply of doping substances to athletes. About 50% of athletes acquired unlawful natural substances and, 30%, unlawful chemical substances easily.

Implementation of anti-doping measures
Most athletes acknowledged the non-implementation of anti-doping measures within their federations. For those who claimed that anti-doping measures were implemented, 60% of them mentioned education, 19%, surveillance, and 11%, repressive measures. Only 17% of the respondents had undergone a drug test before in their sports career. Official doping controls were not conducted during local and national competitions and doping surveillance was neither routinely nor intermittently conducted.

External and internal pressures to use doping substances
Athletes reportedly faced external and internal pressures to use doping substances. Many doping offences were said to occur due to ignorance of what constitutes lawful and unlawful substances. Key informants reported that they were able to identify substances athletes often use, by sight and not by name, and were even less likely to categorize them either as lawful or unlawful. Key informants stated that the growing popularity and increasing commercialisation of sports was pushing young athletes to dope in order to succeed. The general perception by athletes that their rivals were already taking drugs and also that drug offenders were not penalised, appeared to encourage doping initiation. Additionally, poor knowledge of what constitutes doping appeared to render athletes susceptible to the negative manipulations of influential peers, trainers, managers and parents.

There is evidence that the practice of doping is growing rapidly among sportsmen and women in Cameroon. Anti-doping measures exist mainly in theory as they are seldom implemented in practice. Knowledge of what constitutes doping is notoriously limited and frequently distorted. Evidence from the data suggests an urgent need for measures to rescue the situation before doping becomes an institutionalized practice in Cameroon sports. For any initiatives to have an impact in the country, the gap between anti-doping policies and implementation would need to be closed. Rigorous implementation of preventive and repressive measures, e.g. education and sensitization, doping tests, penalties for doping offences, etc, is critically needed. A fair amount of evidence-based advocacy targeting policy makers could bring about the desired changes to both policy and implementation and ensure that an impending doping explosion is avoided in the country.

Determinants of Doping Intentions in Sports (Project DIDIS)

1 Jul 2009

Determinants of Doping Intentions in Sports (Project DIDIS) / Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis

1.1. Background
Project DIDIS was funded in January 2008 by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) under the programme ‘social science research grant’. This project was completed by the Sports and Physical Education Department of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in association with the South-East European Research Centre (SEERC) and the Greek National Council to Combat Doping (NCCD). The duration of the project was 18 months (January 2008 – June 2009).

1.2. Project aims
Project DIDIS aimed to:
• Identify the sportspersonship and motivational profiles of athletes using or intending to use prohibited substances
• Examine the effect of psychosocial variables on athletes’ intention to engage in doping, in order to inform subsequent prevention interventions aimed at athletes with risk for doping
• Provide a parsimonious, theory-driven, and integrated model of the psychosocial determinants of prohibited substance use in sports

1.3. Methodology
The methods involved the cross-sectional administration of a battery of psychological measures in a representative sample (N = 1040) of elite athletes in Greece (M age = 22.9 years, 37.4% females). The measures included:
o Demographic characteristics (age, gender)
o Achievement goal orientations
o Motivational regulations
o Sportspersonship orientations
o Beliefs about the causes of success in sports
o Attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control beliefs
o Social desirability

1.4. Results
• The results of the cluster analysis revealed three achievement goal groups (mastery and approach oriented and high achievers), three self-determination groups (high and low motivated and amotivated) and two sportspersonship groups (high and low sportspersonship). Mastery oriented and high motivated athletes showed the less intention to engage in doping practices compared to high achievers and amotivated athletes. No significant differences were revealed between the sportspersonship groups.
• Regarding the effect of psychosocial variables on athletes’ intention to engage in doping, the regression analyses indicated that introjection and mastery approach goals were negative predictors of intentions, whereas amotivation and performance avoidance goals were positive predictors. In terms of sportpersonship, only social conventions predicted negatively intentions to engage in doping. The TPB variables were found to be significant predictors of intentions.
• The investigation of the integrated model indicated that the effect of distal variables (i.e., achievement goals and motivational regulations) was mediated by the effect of more proximal ones, mainly that of the TPB variables and situational temptation.

1.5. Discussion
The findings of the present study support previous research evidence and theoretical underpinnings on the effect of achievement goals and motivational regulations on planning and executing an unhealthy behavior, such as doping. Furthermore they highlight the important role the TPB variables and situational temptation can play in understanding the mechanisms through which intentions to engage in doping are formulated. Surprisingly, doping was not considered as an unethical behavior and sportspersonship dimensions did not have the expected effect. The findings of the project are discussed in light of current theoretical approaches and on the basis of constructing effective interventions and campaigns to combat doping.

Medical doctors and doping in sport: attitudes and experience in Balkan region

1 Jan 2007

Introduction: Athletes from the Balkan have lost on the last two Olympic Games 5 medals and 5 athletes have been doping positive on out of competition testing, which represents 36% doping positive of all athletes in Sidney 2000 and 24% in Athens 2004.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine attitudes and experience of medical doctors from Balkan Countries in doping in sport.

Materials and methods: A total of 219 medical doctors from Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Serbia and Turkey fulfilled the questionnaire related to doping control procedure, athletes’ rights and responsibilities, their training in doping prevention and willingness to have more education.

Results: During the period of 12 months, 80% doctors have been asked for information about doping agents, 25% of them have been contacted by athletes for the prescription of doping agents, 14% of doctors think that they should assist athletes who want to use doping so that athletes can use doping safely and in 27% of the doctors have treated athletes who are using doping due to medical problems. They believe that education is the most effective method to fight against doping and they believe that the least effective method is two years ban. They indicated adolescents and children as a first group which needs to be targeted in a doping prevention, professional athletes as a second and amateur athletes as a third one.

Conclusion: Hypothesis that athletes are not informed about doping agents because of poor knowledge of medical doctors about this issue is confirmed. This study suggests that medical doctors from Balkan region recognize doping as a real public health problem, and the need for its prevention. Our study stresses the need for prompt education and adequate training of medical doctors in this domain.

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