Effect of hyperhydration on the pharmacokinetics and detection of orally administered budesonide in doping control analysis

Effect of hyperhydration on the pharmacokinetics and detection of orally administered budesonide in doping control analysis / I. Athanasiadou, A. Vonaparti, A. Dokoumetzidis, A. Saleh, M. Mbeloug, M. Al‐Maadheed, G. Valsami, C. Georgakopoulos. - (Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports (2019) 17 June).
- PMID: 31206799.
- DOI: 10.1111/sms.13499


The aim of the present study was to investigate if hyperhydration could influence the excretion and subsequent detection of budesonide (BDS) and its main metabolites (6β-hydroxy-budesonide and 16α-hydroxy-prednisolone) during doping control analysis by leading to concentrations below the WADA reporting level (30 ng/mL). The influence of hyperhydration on the plasma and urinary pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of BDS and metabolites was also examined. Seven healthy physically active non-smoking Caucasian males participated in a 15-day clinical study. BDS was administered orally at a single dose of 9 mg on Days 1, 7 and 13. Hyperhydration was applied in the morning on two consecutive days, i.e., 0 and 24 hours after first fluid ingestion. Water and a commercial sports drink were used as hyperhydration agents (20 mL/kg body weight). Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05, 95% CI) on plasma or urinary PK parameters under hyperhydration conditions for all the analytes. However, significant differences (P < 0.05, 95% CI) due to hyperhydration were observed on the urinary concentrations of BDS and metabolites. To compensate the dilution effect due to hyperhydration, different adjustment methods were applied based on specific gravity, urinary flow rate and creatinine. All the applied methods were able to adjust the concentration values close to the baseline ones for each analyte, however, specific gravity was the optimum method in terms of effectiveness and practicability. Furthermore, no masking of the detection sensitivity of BDS or its metabolites was observed due to hyperhydration either in plasma or urine samples.


Research / Study
17 June 2019
Athanasiadou, Ioanna
Dokoumetzidis, Aristeidis
Georgakopoulos, Costas G.
Mbeloug, M.
Saleh, A.
Valsami, Georgia
Vonaparti, Ariadni
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Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών - National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA)
Doha, Qatar: Antidoping Lab Qatar, Doping Analysis Lab
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S9. Glucocorticosteroids
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5 June 2019
Date of last modification
29 June 2019
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