Welcome to DOPING.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.

Initiator

The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.

Goals

This website was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.

Activities

The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers

This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

More information explaining how to use this website can be found under "help".

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ADDPI 2021_174 INADA vs Jaspreet Singh

20 Apr 2021

In September 2021 the India National Anti-Doping Agency (INADA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the weightlifter  Jaspreet Singh after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Metandienone and Methyltestosterone.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete failed to respond to the communcations, nor attended the hearing of the Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel of India (ADDPI) and a decision was rendered in absentia of the Athlete.

The Panel finds that the presence of prohibited susbstances has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. Because the Athlete didn't respond he failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional nor how the substance had entered his system.

Therefore the ADDPI decides on 20 April 2021 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the the provisional suspension, i.e. on 9 September 2021.

ADDPI 2021_188 INADA vs Rakesh Pandey

18 Apr 2022

In April 2019 the India National Anti-Doping Agency (INADA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the badminton Parathlete Sankar S. after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone (Nandrolone). After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete was heard for the Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel of India (ADDPI).

The Athlete accepted the test result and denied the intentional use of the substances. He explained with medical evidence that for his back pain he underwent treatment in a hospital where his doctor had administered him with prescribed Deca Durabolin (Nandrolon). He mentioned this medication on the Doping Control Form and thereupon he applied for a retroactive TUE which was denied in September 2021.

INADA contended that the Athlete had acted negligently as he failed to mention to his doctor that he is an Athlete. He didn't check his medication before using and the treatment with this product is not appropriate for this condition.

The Panel finds that the presence of the prohibited subtances has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Panel accepts that the violation was not intentional and considers that he acted with some degree of fault or negligence.

Therefore the ADDP decides on 18 April 2022 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Parathlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension.

UCI-ADT 2021 UCI vs Ilya Davidenok

23 Dec 2021

In January 2020 the International Cycling Union (UCI) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Kazakh cyclist Ilya Davidenok after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Erythropoietin (EPO). Presviously the Athlete was sanctioned for 2 years, starting on 16 October 2014, for the presence of a prohibited substance in his sample.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete denied the violation, yet he didn't file a statement in his defence, nor submitted an Acceptance of Consequences within the set deadline.

Thereupon the Athlete failed to respond to the UCI communications and didn't participate in the proceedings. The case was referred to the UCI Anti-Doping Tribunal and a decision was rendered based on the written submissions of the parties.

The Sole Arbitrator finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Arbitrator holds that the Athlete didn't submit an answer in these proceedings and concludes that he failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional. Further the Arbitrator considers that this is his second anti-doping rule violation, there are no grounds for a reduced sanction, yet there had been substantial delays in proceedings not attributed to the Athlete.

Therefore the UCI Anti-Doping Tribunal decides on 23 December 2021 to impose a fine and an 8 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting backdated on 3 April 2020.

Costs of the UCI for the results management and the sample analysis shall be borne by the Athlete.

UCI-ADT 2021 UCI vs Luis Ricardo Villalobos Hernández

21 Dec 2021

In May 2020 the International Cycling Union (UCI) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Mexican cyclist Luis Ricardo Villalobos Hernández after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance GHRP-6.

The Athlete provided a sample in April 2019 and it was initially analysed and reported as negative by the Mexico Laboratory. Yet, after the Mexico Laboratory ceased its operations in November 2019 the Athlete's sample was reanalysed in the Montreal Laboratory revealing the presence of GHRP-6.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete requested the Laboratory Documentation Package and analysis of his B-sample. Further he provided limited information about the supplements and medication he had used at the material time.

In January 2021 the Athlete indicated he was investigating the chain of custody in Mexico. Hereafter he failed to respond to the UCI communications nor participated in the proceedings. The case was referred to the UCI Anti-DopingTribunal and a decision was rendered based on the written submissions of the parties.

The Sole Arbitrator finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's A and B samples and accordingly that he commmitted an anti-doping rule violation. The Arbitrator holds that the Athlete didn't submit an answer in these proceedings and concludes that he failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional.

Therefore the UCI Anti-Doping Tribunal decides on 21 December 2021 to impose a fine and a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 18 May 2020.

Costs of the UCI for the results management, the sample analysis and the documentation packages shall be borne by the Athlete.

FIFA 2021 FIFA vs Sylvain Gbohouo

27 Apr 2022

in December 2021 the International Football Federation (FIFA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Ivorian football player Sylvain Gbohouo after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Trimetazidine. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the FIFA Disciplinary Committee.

The Athlete accepted the test result and denied the intentional use of the substance. He explained with medical evidence that he suffered from and eye diseas and used prescribed medication Vastarel as treatment. He asserted that he and his ophtalmologist were unaware that it contained the prohibited substance Trimetazidine.

The Athlete challenged the classification of Trimetazidine on the Prohibited List and asserted that he had not been able to request the analysis of the B-sample. Further he argued that the strict liability rule in doping related mattters violates the presumption of innocence and thus is contrary to the ECHR.

The FIFA Disciplinary Committee assessed the Athlete's objections and deems that:

  • Under the FIFA ADR 2021 it is competent regarding anti-doping rule violations and the imposition of sanctions.
  • The FIFA ADR clearly contains a reference to the WADC Prohibited List and makes it clear that all players are bound by this list.
  • The Court of Arbitration (CAS) has constantly applied the principle of strict liability as confirmed by the Swiss Federal Tribunal.
  • The 12 hour time limit to request analysis of the B sample started when the Athlete was notified on 28 December 2021 while he was with the Ivorian National team in Saudi Arabia.
  • The presence of the prohibited substance Trimetazidine has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly under the FIFA ADR that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

In view of the medical evidence the Committee accepts that the Athlete's violation was not intentional due to the medication prescribed by an ophthalmologist. Yet, he failed to check his medication and shifted the responsibility of his violation on the doctor / ophtalmologist who prescribed the medication Vastarel. Considering the Athlete's conduct in this case the Committee concludes that he acted with a normal degree of fault rather than significant.

Therefore the FIFA Disciplinary Committee decides on 27 April 2022 to impose an 18 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 23 December 2021.

WADA - Performance-Enhancing Drug Trafficking on the Dark Web

17 Jun 2022

Performance-Enhancing Drug Trafficking on the Dark Web / David Décary-Hétu; University of Montreal; World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) . - Montreal : WADA, 2022


A year-long research project led by the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA’s) independent Intelligence and Investigations (I&I) Department into the extent and nature of the trafficking of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) on the dark web has concluded that it is a marginal activity and very unlikely to be a significant source of drugs for high-level athletes or coaches.

This study was led by WADA I&I’s Confidential Information Unit in collaboration with the Agency’s Science Department and Professor David Décary-Hétu from the University of Montreal’s School of Criminology in Quebec, Canada. It was initiated in an effort to better understand the extent of PED trafficking on the dark web and to assess the type and quality of PEDs being trafficked there.

The main conclusions of the study reveal:

  • It is very unlikely that high-level athletes would use this source for PED purchases; it attracts more low-level athletes, such as amateur or non-competitive bodybuilders.
  • PED trafficking appears to be a marginal activity, both in absolute numbers and relative to the overall clear web and dark web underground economy. PED purchases represent only a small fraction of all dark web marketplace listings.
  • Dark web PED trafficking favors small scale rather than bulk purchasing.
  • There is no organized community of users exchanging information – the clear web remains a more active marketplace for the buying and selling of PEDs.
  • Laboratory testing data suggests products are often mislabeled or contain major discrepancies in terms of their concentration. In 83% of transactions carried out for this study, the product and/or concentration received was not as advertised.
  • Although significantly smaller in scope than the clear web, PED trafficking on the dark web appears to operate unchecked. The dark web affords actors the advantage of anonymity, which combined with weak regulations and a lack of enforcement, allows dark web PED suppliers the freedom to operate with relative impunity.

Compared interest between hair analysis and urinalysis in doping controls. Results for amphetamines, corticosteroids and anabolic steroids in racing cyclists

3 Jan 2000

Compared interest between hair analysis and urinalysis in doping controls. Results for amphetamines, corticosteroids and anabolic steroids in racing cyclists / Y. Gaillard, F. Vayssette, G. Pépin

  • Forensic Science International 107 (2000) 1-3 (10 January), p. 361-379
  • PMID: 10689587
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0379-0738(99)00179-6


Abstract

In France during a famous bicycle race, the newspapers documented the degree in which doping seemed to be supervised in some teams by managers and doctors. Use of anabolic steroids and other substances was officially banned in the mid-seventies by sports authorities. This policy has been enforced through urine testing before competition. It is well known, however, that a latency period is all that is necessary to defeat these tests. Nevertheless, hair analysis could be a promising tool when testing for periods that are not accessible to urinalysis any more. We have developed different sensitive methods for testing hair for amphetamines, anabolic steroids and their esters and corticosteroids. For amphetamines, 50 mg of hair were digested with 1 M NaOH, extracted with ethyl acetate, derivatized with TFA and analyzed by gas chromatography positive chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. For corticosteroids, 50 mg of powdered hair were treated with methanol in an ultrasonic bath and subsequently purified using a C18 solid phase extraction column. Analysis was realized by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. For anabolic steroids and their esters, 100 mg of powdered hair were treated with methanol in an ultrasonic bath for extraction of esters, then alkaline digested with 1 M NaOH for an optimum recovery of other drugs. The two liquid preparations were subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate, pooled, then finally highly purified using a twin solid phase extraction on aminopropyl and silica cartridges. Residue was derivatized with MSTFA prior to injection. Analysis was conducted by gas chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Thirty cyclists were sampled and tested both in hair and in urine. Amphetamine was detected 10 times in hair (out of 19 analyses) compared to 6 times in urine (out of 30 analyses). Corticosteroids were detected 5 times in hair (methylprednisolone 1 case, triamcinolone acetonide 3 cases and hydrocortisone acetate 1 case) in hair (out of 12 analyses) compared to 12 times (triamcinolone acetonide 10 cases and betamethasone 2 cases) in urine (out of 30 analyses). Anabolic steroids were detected twice (nandrolone 1 case, and testosterone undecanoate 1 case) in hair (out of 25 analyses) compared to none in urine (out of 30 analyses).

Gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric determination of anabolic steroids and their esters in hair. Application in doping control and meat quality control

29 Nov 1999

Gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric determination of anabolic steroids and their esters in hair. Application in doping control and meat quality control / Y. Gaillard, F. Vayssette, A. Balland, G. Pépin

  • Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications 735 (1999) 2 (10 December), p. 189-205
  • PMID: 10670734
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0378-4347(99)00416-8


Abstract

We have developed a powerful and simple sensitive method for testing hair for anabolic steroids and their esters. A 100-mg amount of powdered hair was treated with methanol in an ultrasonic bath for extraction of esters, then alkaline digested with 1 M NaOH for an optimum recovery of other drugs. The two liquid preparations were subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate, pooled, then finally highly purified using a twin solid-phase extraction on amino and silica cartridges. The residue was derivatized with N-methyl-N(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoracetamide (MSTFA) prior to injection. Analysis was conducted by gas chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The generally chosen parent ion was the molecular ion while two daughter ions were selected for each compound with collision energies ranging from -16 to -21 eV. Internal standards were nandrolone d3 for non-esterified drugs and testosterone phenyl propionate for esters. The limits of detection calculated from an analysis of the blanks (n=30) were 0.08 pg/mg for nandrolone, 6.20 pg/mg for boldenone, 0.07 pg/mg for methyl testosterone, 0.15 pg/mg for ethinyl estradiol, 2.10 pg/mg for metandienone, 0.86 pg/mg for testosterone propionate, 0.95 pg/mg for testosterone cypionate, 1.90 pg/mg for nandrolone decanoate, 3.10 pg/mg for testosterone decanoate and 4.80 pg/mg for testosterone undecanoate. Application to doping control has been demonstrated. In a series of 18 sportsmen, two tested positive for anabolic steroids in hair whereas urinalysis was negative for both of them. The first positive case was nandrolone and the second case concerned the identification of testosterone undecanoate. Measured in 10 white males aged between 22 and 31 years, the testosterone concentration was in the range 1.7-9.2 pg/mg (mean=5.0 pg/mg). The method was also applied in meat quality control. Of the 187 analyses realized based upon hair and urine sampling in slaughter houses, 23 were positive for anabolic steroids in hair: one case for boldenone, one case for metandienone, two cases for testosterone propionate, three cases for nandrolone, five cases for testosterone decanoate and 11 cases for methyl testosterone. In the meantime, urinalysis was always negative for these drugs or their metabolites.

Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

25 Nov 2006

Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry / Lauriane Rambaud, Fabrice Monteau, Yoann Deceuninck, Emmanuelle Bichon, François André, Bruno Le Bizec

  • Analytica Chimica Acta 586 (2007) 1-2 (14 March), 93-104
  • PMID: 17386700
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.11.048


Abstract

The monitoring of anabolic steroid residues in hair is undoubtedly one of the most efficient strategies to demonstrate the long-term administration of these molecules in meat production animals. A multi-residue sample preparation procedure was developed and validated for 28 steroids. A 100 mg hair sample was grinded into powder and extracted at 50 degrees C with methanol. After acidic hydrolysis and extraction with ethyl acetate, phenolsteroids, such as estrogens, resorcyclic acid lactones and stilbens in one hand, are separated from androgens and progestagens in the other hand. Solid phase extractions were performed before applying a specific derivatisation for each compound sub-group. Detection and identification were achieved using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with acquisition in the selected reaction monitoring mode after electron ionisation. The method was validated according to the 2002/657/EC guideline. Decision limits (CCalpha) for main steroids were in the 0.1-10 microg kg(-1) range.

Multi residue screening of intact testosterone esters and boldenone undecylenate in bovine hair using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

21 Nov 2005

Multi residue screening of intact testosterone esters and boldenone undecylenate in bovine hair using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry / Michel W.F. Nielen, Johan J.P. Lasaroms, Patrick P.J. Mulder, Johan Van Hende, J. Hans A. van Rhijn, Maria J. Groot

  • Journal of Chromatography B 830 (2006) 1 (2 January), p. 126-134
  • PMID: 16301005
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.10.028


Abstract

The abuse of esters of natural androgenic steroids in cattle fattening and sports is hard to control via routine urine testing. The esters are rapidly hydrolysed in vivo into substances which are also endogenously present in urine. In veterinary control strange findings of 17beta-testosterone and 17alpha-testosterone in urine are often ignored because of the lack of statistically sound reference data of naturally occurring levels. An interesting alternative for inconclusive urine analyses in veterinary control can be provided by the analysis of the administered steroids themselves, i.e. the analysis of intact steroid esters in hair. Unfortunately, the analysis of intact steroid esters is complicated not only by the vulnerability of the esters which precludes alkaline hydrolysis of the hair, but also by the wide polarity range of short and long-chain esters yielding very poor recoveries for either the one or the other. In this study, a multi-steroid esters LC/MS/MS screening method is presented for trace analysis of the synthetic intact esters of 17beta-testosterone and the undecylenate ester of 17beta-boldenone in bovine hair. The method, requiring only 200 mg of pulverised hair, features a mild digestion procedure using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) and the use of four deuterium-labelled steroid esters as internal standards covering the wide polarity range of the analytes. In spiked hair samples for most of the analytes the limit of detection and the accuracy using isotope dilution were 2-5 ng/g and 97-105%, respectively. The applicability was demonstrated using hair samples from a controlled experiment in which six bovines were injected intramuscularly with two different doses of two commercial mixtures of testosterone esters, and with two different doses of boldenone undecylenate. Depending on the dose all administered testosterone- and boldenone esters were found to be incorporated in bovine hair following a single intramuscular injection, except testosterone propionate which dose might have been too low.

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