Welcome to DOPING.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.


The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.


This website was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.


The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers

This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

More information explaining how to use this website can be found under "help".

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Adverse effects and potential benefits among selective androgen receptor modulators users: a cross-sectional survey

1 Sep 2021

Adverse effects and potential benefits among selective androgen receptor modulators users : a cross-sectional survey / Iakov V. Efimenko, David Valancy, Justin M. Dubin, Ranjith Ramasamy. - (International Journal of Impotence Research (2021) 1 September)

  • PMID: 34471228
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41443-021-00465-0


Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of androgen receptor ligands that bind androgen receptors and display tissue selective activation of androgenic signaling. SARMs have selective anabolic effects on muscle and bone, and were originally synthesized for treatment of muscle wasting conditions, osteoporosis, breast cancer. To date, no SARM has been clinically approved and little is known about the beneficial effects and other adverse effects on users. We examined the adverse effects and potential benefits of SARMs amongst users. We performed an internet survey assessing the demographics of users via a 32-question survey. Using reddit as a platform, we distributed the survey through various subreddits that included potential SARMs users. Out of the 520 responses, 343 participants admitted having used SARMs. Most were males (98.5%), between the ages of 18-29 (72.3%). More than 90% of users acquired SARMs via the internet and did not consult with a physician. More than half of SARMs users experienced side effects including mood swings, decreased testicular size, and acne. More than 90% of men reported increased muscle mass and were satisfied with their SARMs usage. Despite having seemingly positive effects, more than 50% of SARMs users report significant adverse effects. Chi square was the main method of statistical analysis. Future studies should focus on comprehensive reproductive evaluation of men using SARMs.

Multiple hepatocellular adenomas and renal cell carcinoma associated with anabolic androgenic steroids

9 Jan 2021

Множественные гепатоцеллюлярные аденомы и почечноклеточный рак, ассоциированные с приемом бодибилдером анаболических андрогенных стероидов [Multiple hepatocellular adenomas and renal cell carcinoma associated with anabolic androgenic steroids] / M.M. Morozova, E.I. Ivanova, N.K. Chardarov, O.V. Dolzhanskiy, G.A. Shatveryan, Yu.R. Kamalov. - (Khirurgiya (2021) 10; p. 105-109

  • PMID: 34608788
  • DOI: 10.17116/hirurgia2021101105
  • Article in Russian

Abstract in English

The authors report a rare case of combination of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma Grade 2 pT2aN0 with multiple hepatocellular adenomas in a 31-year-old bodybuilder who received anabolic androgenic steroids at high doses for 8 years. According to MRI data, over 15 liver adenomas and tumor in the lower segment of the right kidney were detected. The patients underwent laparascopic resection of the right kidney and liver segments 2, 3 and 4 with large adenomas. Histological study and immunohistochemistry revealed no malignancy signs in hepatocellular adenomas. Nuclear β-catenin expression was absent. Kidney tumor had a structure of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. The patient is currently being followed-up due to residual small liver adenomas. In our opinion, liver adenomatosis and renal cancer have the same cause in this case (chronic toxic effect of androgens).

Abstract in Russian

Приведен редкий случай сочетания хромофобного рака почки Grade 2 (pT2aN0 по системе TMN) со множественными гепатоцеллюлярными аденомами печени у 31-летнего бодибилдера, который на протяжении 8 лет в больших дозах принимал анаболические андрогенные стероиды. При МРТ выявлено более 15 аденом печени, а также образование в нижнем сегменте правой почки. Больному проведена одномоментная операция: лапараскопическая резекция правой почки и резекция II, III и IV сегментов печени с наиболее крупными образованиями. При гистологическом и иммуногистохимическом исследованиях гепатоцеллюлярные аденомы не имели признаков малигнизации, ядерная β-катениновая экспрессия отсутствовала, образование почки расценено как хромофобный почечноклеточный рак. В настоящее время пациент находится под динамическим контролем онколога и хирурга в связи с необходимостью наблюдения за сохранившимися в паренхиме печени аденомами. Сочетанное поражение печени в виде аденоматоза и рака почки у данного пациента следует рассматривать как единый этиопатологический процесс, обусловленный хроническим токсическим влиянием андрогенов.

Effects of Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs on Personality Traits

24 Sep 2021

Effects of Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs on Personality Traits / Simona Zaami, Adele Minutillo, Ascanio Sirignano, Enrico Marinelli. - (Frontiers in Psychiatry 12 (2021) 730167 (24 September); p. 1-7) 

  • PMID: 34630182
  • PMCID: PMC8497711
  • DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.730167


Appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) are commonly used by adolescents and young adults in an effort to improve not only athletic performance but also physical and mental efficiency and sexual appearance. The rationale for using these drugs is grounded in the perceived importance of external appearance, the quest for health and youth, and the urge to boost one's sexual performances. Although APED users tend to be quite moderate overall, some specific subpopulations can display pathological use associated with high-risk behaviors. A wide and diverse range of APEDs is now easily accessible to almost anyone through backdoor online avenues. Common APEDs include anabolic-androgenic steroids, non-steroidal anabolics, anorectics, diuretics and ergo/thermogenics, nootropics or "cognition enhancers," licit and illicit psychostimulants, and finally, sexual enhancers. The use of APEDs appears linked to several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence, e.g., body image disorders and eating disorders, perfectionism, but also depression and loneliness. The role of personality traits related to APED use has been investigated in adolescents and young adults, in elite and amateur athletes, and in chemsexers and associated with the above-reported personality traits. The studies herein analyzed show that APED consumption in the general population is quickly growing into a public health concern. It is therefore essential to launch prevention and intervention projects aimed at promoting safe instrumental use of the body, not only in sports disciplines but also among the general population, and to promote psychological aid procedures for people with substance use issues, depression and anxiety, and body image disorders.

Enhancing the Self: Amateur Bodybuilders Making Sense of Experiences With Appearance and Performance-Enhancing Drugs

11 Jun 2021

Enhancing the Self: Amateur Bodybuilders Making Sense of Experiences With Appearance and Performance-Enhancing Drugs / Juraj Macho, Jiri Mudrak, Pavel Slepicka. - (Frontiers in Psychology 12 (2021) 648467 (11 June); p. 1-14)

  • PMID: 34177704
  • PMCID: PMC8232052
  • DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648467


In this paper, we implemented a methodological framework of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and a theoretical conceptualization of multiple selves to explore the subjective accounts of six amateur bodybuilders using appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs). The participants made sense of their bodybuilding careers and experiences with APEDs in a way that showed a multiplicity and complexity of reasons for using APEDs, which stemmed from tensions they perceived between the context of bodybuilding and other life domains. The participants' reasons for the use of APEDs included not only enhancing their body, appearance and performance but also enhancing other subjectively important psychological characteristics, such as agency and self-control, the development of knowledge and expertise, sense of meaning, well-being, and quality of life. In the analysis, we integrated these themes through the concept of the "extraordinary self," based on which our participants strived for self-actualization through bodybuilding and the use of APEDs. In the sense making of our participants, a potential "exit point" subverting their APED use emerged from a tension between such "extraordinary selves" and the "ordinary selves" through which they perceived APEDs as preventing them from living normal, balanced lives outside the context of bodybuilding. However, success in balancing the two selves also created the possibility of the future use of APEDs.

Does Legislating Against Doping in Sports Make Sense? Comparing Sweden and the U.S. Suggests Not

22 Feb 2014

Does Legislating Against Doping in Sports Make Sense? Comparing Sweden and the U.S. Suggests Not / Johan Lindholm. - (Virginia Sports and Entertainment Law Journal 13 (2013) 1 (Fall); p. 21-34)


Both policy makers and sport stakeholders have fought against doping since the 1960’s but largely separately from each other. In light of recent events, political discussion, and academic debate, this article considers the expediency of using legislation to fight doping in sports. Building upon and comparing experiences in the U.S. and in Sweden, this article concludes that increased governmental involvement is undesirable from both the policy makers’ and the sport stakeholders’ perspectives. The reasons for this conclusion are, primarily, (i) that they are driven by different aims, (ii) that they differ in what they consider doping, (iii) that policy makers may push rules in sports in an unwanted direction, (iv) that expanded government involvement increases the likelihood of fundamental rights challenges to sport rules, and (v) that there are alternative ways of enhancing existing rules’ efficiency.

Keywords: Sports, Sports law, Doping, Fundamental rights, WADA, IOC, steroids, EPO, hGH

Detection of modafinil in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

29 Jun 2005

Detection of modafinil in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry / Ying Lung Tseng, Victor Uralets, Chien-Tzong Lin, Fan-Hsin Kuo. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 39 (2005) 5 (4 October); p. 1042-1045)

  • PMID: 15993026
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2005.04.050


The main purpose of this study was to detect and quantify modafinil in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urinary samples were collected from three healthy male volunteers following oral administration of a clinical dose (100 mg) of modafinil (Provigil). Urine specimens were extracted with t-butylmethyl ether (TBME) prior to GC-MS analysis. The results demonstrate that the chromatographic characteristics and the mass spectrum of the unchanged parent drug extracted from urine samples were identical to that obtained from the authentic standard. The times for the unchanged modafinil to reach peak concentration in the urine of the three volunteers were at 2 h (6.14 microg/mL), 4 h (9.93 microg/mL) and 8 h (3.58 microg/mL), respectively. Total clearance occurred in approximately 48-72 h with 2-5% eliminated through urine as unchanged modafinil. The present study demonstrates that modafinil is detectable in the absence of hydrolysis and derivatization steps.

Determination of modafinil in plasma and urine by reversed phase high-performance liquid-chromatography

23 Dec 2004

Determination of modafinil in plasma and urine by reversed phase high-performance liquid-chromatography / Harvey A. Schwertner, Suk Bin Kong. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 37 (2005) 3 (9 March); p. 475-479)

  • PMID: 15740906
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2004.11.014


Modafinil (Provigil) is a new wake-promoting drug that is being used for the management of excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. It has pharmacological properties similar to that of amphetamine, but without some of the side effects associated with amphetamine-like stimulants. Since modafinil has the potential to be abused, accurate drug-screening methods are needed for its analysis. In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid-chromatographic procedure (HPLC) for the quantitative analysis of modafinil in plasma and urine. (Phenylthio)acetic acid was used as an internal standard for the analysis of both plasma and urine. Modafinil was extracted from urine and plasma with ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate-acetic acid (100:1, v/v), respectively, and analyzed on a C18 reverse phase column with methanol-water-acetic acid (500:500:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Recoveries from urine and plasma were 80.0 and 98.9%, respectively and the limit of quantitation was 0.1 microg/mL at 233 nm. Forty-eight 2-h post-dose urine samples from sham controls and from individuals taking 200 or 400 mg of modafinil were analyzed without knowledge of drug administration. All 16-placebo urine samples and all 32 2-h post-dose urine samples were correctly classified. The analytical procedure is accurate and reproducible and can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacokinetic studies, and drug abuse screening.

Prolonged stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I secretion by CJC-1295, a long-acting analog of GH-releasing hormone, in healthy adults

1 Mar 2006

Prolonged stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I secretion by CJC-1295, a long-acting analog of GH-releasing hormone, in healthy adults / Sam L. Teichman, Ann Neale, Betty Lawrence, Catherine Gagnon, Jean-Paul Castaigne, Lawrence A. Frohman. - (The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91 (2006) 3 (1 March); p. 799-805) 

  • PMID: 16352683
  • DOI: 10.1210/jc.2005-1536


Context: Therapeutic use of GHRH to enhance GH secretion is limited by its short duration of action.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetic profile, pharmacodynamic effects, and safety of CJC-1295, a long-acting GHRH analog.

Design: The study design was two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, ascending dose trials with durations of 28 and 49 d.

Setting: The study was performed at two investigational sites.

Participants: Healthy subjects, ages 21-61 yr, were studied.

Interventions: CJC-1295 or placebo was administered sc in one of four ascending single doses in the first study and in two or three weekly or biweekly doses in the second study.

Main outcome measures: The main outcome measures were peak concentrations and area under the curve of GH and IGF-I; standard pharmacokinetic parameters were used for CJC-1295.

Results: After a single injection of CJC-1295, there were dose-dependent increases in mean plasma GH concentrations by 2- to 10-fold for 6 d or more and in mean plasma IGF-I concentrations by 1.5- to 3-fold for 9-11 d. The estimated half-life of CJC-1295 was 5.8-8.1 d. After multiple CJC-1295 doses, mean IGF-I levels remained above baseline for up to 28 d. No serious adverse reactions were reported.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous administration of CJC-1295 resulted in sustained, dose-dependent increases in GH and IGF-I levels in healthy adults and was safe and relatively well tolerated, particularly at doses of 30 or 60 microg/kg. There was evidence of a cumulative effect after multiple doses. These data support the potential utility of CJC-1295 as a therapeutic agent.

Anabolic-androgenic steroids and dietary supplements among resistance trained individuals in western cities of Saudi Arabia

28 Sep 2021

Anabolic-androgenic steroids and dietary supplements among resistance trained individuals in western cities of Saudi Arabia / Ameen Mosleh Almohammadi, Anas Mohammed Edriss, Turki Talal Enani. - (BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 13 (2021) 1 (28 September); p. 1-7)

  • PMID: 34583769
  • PMCID: PMC8480089
  • DOI: 10.1186/s13102-021-00345-6


Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) contain testosterone-like androgens and are used as supplements to improve performance, therapeutic measures, appearance, and muscular development.

Purpose: This study aimed to estimate using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and good and bad practices about dietary supplements among resistance-trained individuals. It further seeked to determine the use of common drugs and supplements containing anabolic steroids among resistance-trained individuals (who work out at the sports centre) and assess users' knowledge about its side effects.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the sports centres of the western cities of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 male resistance-trained individuals.

Results: The majority of the participants (80%) reported that they had not used any hormonal bodybuilding supplement last year, while 20% said they had used such hormonal supplements. Approximately half (52.5%) of participants reported that they always used dietary supplements. A total of 44.2% of participants possessed inadequate knowledge of these products. The main reason behind the use of hormones and supplements was to increase muscle mass.

Conclusions: A minority of resistance-trained individuals in the studied population frequently misused AAS. However, the results cannot be generalised to the whole of Saudi Arabia. AAS consumption can be reduced by enhancing the level of awareness and knowledge of potential adverse health outcomes.

Severe Cardiac and Metabolic Pathology Induced by Steroid Abuse in a Young Individual

21 Jul 2021

Severe Cardiac and Metabolic Pathology Induced by Steroid Abuse in a Young Individual / Adrian Tirla, Cosmin Mihai Vesa, Simona Cavalu. - (Diagnostics 11 (2021) 8 (21 July); p. 1-13)

  • PMID: 34441248
  • PMCID: PMC8394374
  • DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics11081313


Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids (AAS) abuse is known to play an important role in causing the systemic inflammatory response and multiple-organ dysfunction in healthy individuals. Although many of the undesirable effects of steroid abuse have been reported, at present, little is known about the effect of anabolic supplements and the correlation between cardiac and metabolic pathology. This paper presents a case of a 25 year old patient with a complex medical history after 6 months of steroid administration. Myocardial infraction, dyslipidemia, obesity, hyperuricemia, secondary diabetes, and chronic renal disease were identified after clinical and para-clinical examinations. The particularities of this case were interpreted in the context of a literature review, highlighting the effect of multi-organ damage as a result of the uncontrolled use of anabolic steroid supplements.

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