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This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.


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This website was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.


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ADAK 2020 ADAK vs Michael Odhiambo

19 Nov 2020

Related case:

ADAK 2018 ADAK vs Michael Odhiambo
September 20, 2018

On 20 September 2018 the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal decided to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the boxer Michael Odhiambo after he tested positive for the prohibited substance Cannabis.

Hereafter in june 2019 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) reported that the Athlete had breached the imposed period of ineligibility because he had participated in boxing matches.

In this case there were delays in the proceedings attributed to the Athlete due to he acted evasive and finally could be notified in by ADAK in July 2020. Hereafter the Athlete failed to respond to the ADAK communication nor did he attend the hearing of the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal.

ADAK stated that it had received information from a whistleblower en hereafter had established that the Athlete had participated in 3 boxing matches in the United States in February 2018, November 2018 and in January 2019 during the imposed perod of ineligibility

The Panel holds that the Athlete was duly notified, that he acted evasive, failed to attend the hearing nor filed any response to the charges. The Panel deems that there was sufficient evidence that the Athlete had breached the period of ineligibility through his participation in 3 boxing matches.

Therefore the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal decides on 19 November 2020 to impose an additional 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date the the current period of ineligibility wil end, i.e. on 5 February 2022.

WADA Legal Note on the CAS Award WADA v. RUSADA (CAS 2020/O/6689)

14 Jan 2021

WADA Legal Note on the CAS Award WADA v. RUSADA (CAS 2020/O/6689) / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2021

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) had published the Court of Arbitration for Sport’s (CAS’s) 186-page full reasoned decision regarding its 17 December 2020 ruling in favor of WADA to declare the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) non-compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code for a period of two years and to impose a range of associated consequences. This publication, which was also made on the CAS website, is in keeping with Article 10.4.1 of the 2018 version of the International Standard for Code Compliance by Signatories (ISCCS).

Further to WADA’s media release of 17 December, the Agency has also drafted a legal note that it shares today, which outlines the background leading to the CAS proceedings, provides a summary of the parties’ key arguments, and summarizes the CAS decision.

This CAS decision relates specifically to the manipulation of Moscow Laboratory data by the Russian authorities before and while the data were being forensically copied by WADA’s Intelligence and Investigations Department in January 2019 as part of Operation LIMS. This manipulation was in clear contravention of critical criteria set by WADA’s Executive Committee when RUSADA was reinstated as compliant, under strict conditions, in September 2018.

The CAS decision does not relate to the broader Russian doping crisis dating back to 2014 before WADA was authorized to carry out investigations and before it had the proper legal basis to pursue this matter under the ISCCS.

CAS 2020_O_6689 WADA vs RUSADA

17 Dec 2020

CAS 2020/O/6689 World Anti-Doping Agency v. Russian Anti-Doping Agency

  • World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
  • Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA)

Intervening Parties:

  • International Olympic Committee
  • International Paralympic Committee
  • Russia Olympic Committee
  • Russia Paralympic Committee
  • European Olympic Committees
  • International Ice Hockey Federation
  • Russian Ice Hockey Federation
  • Lilya Akhaimova, Regina Isachkina, Elena Osipova, Arina Averina, Olga Ivanova, Yana Pavlova, Dina Averina, Yulia Kaplina, Alexey Rubtsov, Ilya Borodin, Evgeniya Kosetskaya, Ekatarina Selezneva, Artur Dalaloyan, Elena Krasovskaia, Nikita Shleikher, Alina Davletova, Evgeny Kuznetsov, Vladimir Sidorenko, Evgenija Davydova, Sayana Lee, Inna Stepanova, Inna Deriglazova, Vladimir Malkov, Maria Tolkacheva, Yana Egorian, Polina Mikhailova, Dmitry Ushakov, Vladislav Grinev, Andrei Minakov, Sofiya Velikaya, Kristina Ilinykh, Nikita Nagornyy, and Andrey Yudin
  • Sasha Gusev, Daniil Sotnikov, Ilya Borisov, Igor Ovsyannikov, Nachyn Coular, Valeria Koblova, Elizaveta Sorokina, Ivan Golubkov, Elena Krutova, and Viktoria Potapova

This case deals with RUSADA’s alleged non-compliance of a critical requirement under the International Standard for Code Compliance by Signatories (ISCCS) to procure the delivery to WADA of authentic data from the Moscow Anti-Doping Laboratory.

In January 2020 WADA requested CAS for arbitration against RUSADA. Hereafter also the IOC, IPC, ROC, EOC, IIHF, FHR and two Athletes Groups filed their requests to intervene in the proceedings.

WADA contended that the Moscow Data had been materially and improperly altered prior to a copy being provided to WADA in January 2019. The alleged alterations included:

  • back-dating;
  • disk formatting;
  • deletions of database back-ups;
  • secure erasing of files;
  • selective removal of user action commands from command logs;
  • replacement of databases;
  • deletion of records;
  • removal of tables; and
  • missing command logs.

On that account WADA sought a finding of such non-compliance and the imposition of a number of consequences deriving therefrom. RUSADA opposed WADA’s claims. It denied that the data retrieved by WADA from the Moscow Laboratory was manipulated and, in the alternative, denied any responsibility for manipulations and challenged the validity of the Signatory Consequences sought by WADA.

The Intervening Parties’ submissions, in a number of areas, bore substantial similarity to those made by RUSADA or overlapped with submissions made by other Intervening Parties.

As a result of the Parties’ submissions the CAS Panel examined the following issues:

  • the validity of the ISCCS and WADA’s requirement that RUSADA procure the delivery to WADA of authentic data from the Moscow Laboratory;
  • whether RUSADA complied with that requirement; and
  • if not, what Signatory Consequences can and should be imposed.

At first the CAS Panel in this case dismissed the objections to its jurisdiction and settled a number of other procedural matters raised by the Parties.

The Panel established that RUSADA consented to the 2018 WADC, the ISCCS and the Post Reinstatement Conditions. This consent was not compromised or invalidated by the safegards in its defence.

Also the Panel established that the Post-Reinstatements Data Requirement was valid and binding on RUSADA, and non-compliance could lead to consequences under the ISCCS. The Panel does not accept RUSADA’s submission that there were no changes, losses or deletions of data pertaining to results of doping sample analysis.

Based on the evidence the Panel concludes that RUSADA failed to procure an authentic copy of the Moscow Data and therefore failed to comply with the Post-Reinstatement Data Requirement. The steps taken to manipulate the Moscow Data and deceive WADA could hardly be more serious. For that reason the Panel deems that WADA has established that RUSADA in non-compliance with the 2018 WADC.

The Panel regards that, despite having an opportunity to come clean and draw a line under this scandal by providing access to the Moscow Data, Russian authorities engaged in an extensive manipulation of that data. This conduct is likely to thwart or at least substantially hinder the ability to identify those athletes who participated in the doping scheme.

Having further found that RUSADA failed to comply with the Post-Reinstatement Data Requirement, the Panel has accordingly imposed consequences to reflect the nature and seriousness of the non-compliance and to ensure that the integrity of sport against the scourge of doping is maintained.

Nevertheless the consequences which the Panel has decided to impose are not as extensive as those sought by WADA. This should not, however, be read as any validation of the conduct of RUSADA or the Russian authorities.

Therefore the Court of Arbitrtion for Sport decides on 17 December 2020 that:

  1. The Request for Arbitration filed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (“WADA”) dated 9 January 2020 is partially upheld.
  2. The Panel has jurisdiction to determine this matter.
  3. The Russian Anti-Doping Agency (“RUSADA”) is found to be non-compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code (“WADC”) in connection with its failure to procure that the authentic LIMS data and underlying analytical data of the former Moscow Laboratory was received by WADA.
  4. The orders below come into effect on the date of this Award and remain in effect until the second anniversary of that date (the “Two-Year Period”).       [...]
  5. RUSADA is required to satisfy the following reinstatement conditions during the Two-Year Period (or any shorter period as agreed between WADA and RUSADA) in order to be reinstated as a compliant Signatory.      [...]
  6. RUSADA is to pay a fine to WADA of 10% of its 2019 income or USD 100,000 (one hundred thousand United States dollars) (whichever is lower) within 90 (ninety) days from the notification of the present arbitral award. Such amount shall accrue interest at a rate of 5% per annum in case of non-timely payment.
  7. The costs of the arbitration, to be determined and served to the parties by the CAS Court Office, shall be borne 80% by RUSADA and 20% by WADA.
  8. RUSADA is ordered to pay WADA a total amount of CHF 400,000 (four hundred thousand Swiss francs) as contribution towards its legal and other expenses incurred in connection with these arbitration proceedings within 90 (ninety) days from the date the present award. Such amount shall accrue interest at a rate of 5% per annum in case of non-timely payment.
  9. RUSADA and each Intervening Party shall bear its own legal costs and other expenses incurred in connection with this arbitration.
  10. All other motions or prayers for relief are dismissed.

Finding the golden genes: Advances in gene therapy could tempt some athletes to enhance their genetic makeup, leading some researchers to work on detection methods just in case

30 Sep 2009

Finding the golden genes : Advances in gene therapy could tempt some athletes to enhance their genetic makeup, leading some researchers to work on detection methods just in case / Patrick Barry. - (Science News 174 (2008) 3 (2 August); p. 16-21)

  • Doi: 10.1002/scin.2008.5591740321

New application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for site-specific exogenous gene doping analysis

17 Nov 2020

New application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for site-specific exogenous gene doping analysis / Joon-Yeop Yi, Minyoung Kim, Hophil Min, Byung-Gee Kim, Junghyun Son, Oh-Seung Kwon, Changmin Sung. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2020) 17 November)

  • PMID: 33201595
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2980


The increased potential for gene doping since the introduction of gene therapy presents the need to develop anti-doping assays. We therefore aimed to develop a quick and simple method for the detection of specifically targeted exogenous doping genes utilizing an in vitro clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system. A human erythropoietin (hEPO) is a drug frequently used for doping in athletes, and gene doping using gene transfer techniques may be attempted. Therefore, we selected hEPO gene as a model of exogenous doping gene, and complemental single guide RNA (sgRNA) was designed to specifically bind to the four exon-exon junctions in the hEPO cDNA. For the rapid reaction of CRISPR-Cas9, further optimization was performed using an open-source program (CRISPOR) that avoids TT and GCC motifs before the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) domain and predicts the efficiency of the sgRNA. We optimized the in vitro Cas9 assay and dual use of sgRNA for double cleavage and identified the limit of detection (LOD) of the 1.25 nM of the double cleavage method. We expect that the improved CRISPR-Cas9 method can be used for anti-doping analyses of gene doping.

Detection of non-targeted transgenes by whole-genome resequencing for gene-doping control

7 Aug 2020

Detection of non-targeted transgenes by whole-genome resequencing for gene-doping control / Teruaki Tozaki, Aoi Ohnuma, Masaki Takasu, Kotono Nakamura, Mio Kikuchi, Taichiro Ishige, Hironaga Kakoi, Kei-Ichi Hirora, Norihisa Tamura, Kanichi Kusano, Shun-Ichi Nagata. - (Gene Therapy (2020) 7 August)

  • PMID: 32770095
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41434-020-00185-y


Gene doping has raised concerns in human and equestrian sports and the horseracing industry. There are two possible types of gene doping in the sports and racing industry: (1) administration of a gene-doping substance to postnatal animals and (2) generation of genetically engineered animals by modifying eggs. In this study, we aimed to identify genetically engineered animals by whole-genome resequencing (WGR) for gene-doping control. Transgenic cell lines, in which the erythropoietin gene (EPO) cDNA form was inserted into the genome of horse fibroblasts, were constructed as a model of genetically modified horse. Genome-wide screening of non-targeted transgenes was performed to find structural variation using DELLY based on split-read and paired-end algorithms and Control-FREEC based on read-depth algorithm. We detected the EPO transgene as an intron deletion in the WGR data by the split-read algorithm of DELLY. In addition, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions artificially introduced in the EPO transgene were identified by WGR. Therefore, genome-wide screening using WGR can contribute to gene-doping control even if the targets are unknown. This is the first study to detect transgenes as intron deletions for gene-doping detection.

Digital PCR detection of plasmid DNA administered to the skeletal muscle of a microminipig: a model case study for gene doping detection

10 Oct 2018

Digital PCR detection of plasmid DNA administered to the skeletal muscle of a microminipig : a model case study for gene doping detection / Teruaki Tozaki, Shiori Gamo, Masaki Takasu, Mio Kikuchi, Hironaga Kakoi, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Kanichi Kusano, Shun-Ichi Nagata. - (BMC Res Notes 11 (2018) 10 October)

  • PMID: 30309394
  • PMCID: PMC6180624
  • DOI: 10.1186/s13104-018-3815-6


Objective: Doping control is an important and indispensable aspect of fair horse racing; genetic doping has been recently included to this. In this study, we aimed to develop a detection method of gene doping. A plasmid cloned with human erythropoietin gene (p.hEPO, 250 μg/head) was intramuscularly injected into a microminipig. Subsequently, p.hEPO was extracted from 1 mL of plasma and detected by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

Results: The results confirmed that the maximum amount of plasmid was detected at 15 min after administration and the majority of the plasmid was degraded in the bloodstream within 1-2 days after administration. In contrast, low amounts of p.hEPO were detected at 2-3 weeks after administration. These results suggest that the proposed method to detect gene doping can help obtain information for experiments using horses.


Gene and Cell Doping: The New Frontier - Beyond Myth or Reality

2 Jun 2017

Gene and Cell Doping : The New Frontier - Beyond Myth or Reality / Elmo W.I. Neuberger, Perikles Simon. - (Medicine and sport science 62 (2017) 2 June; p. 91-106) 

  • PMID: 28578328
  • DOI: 10.1159/000465456


The advent of gene transfer technologies in clinical studies aroused concerns that these technologies will be misused for performance-enhancing purposes in sports. However, during the last 2 decades, the field of gene therapy has taken a long and winding road with just a few gene therapeutic drugs demonstrating clinical benefits in humans. The current state of gene therapy is that viral vector-mediated gene transfer shows the now long-awaited initial success for safe, and in some cases efficient, gene transfer in clinical trials. Additionally, the use of small interfering RNA promises an efficient therapy through gene silencing, even though a number of safety concerns remain. More recently, the development of the molecular biological CRISPR/Cas9 system opened new possibilities for efficient and highly targeted genome editing. This chapter aims to define and consequently demystify the term "gene doping" and discuss the current reality concerning gene- and cell-based physical enhancement strategies. The technological progress in the field of gene therapy will be illustrated, and the recent clinical progress as well as technological difficulties will be highlighted. Comparing the attractiveness of these technologies with conventional doping practices reveals that current gene therapy technologies remain unattractive for doping purposes and unlikely to outperform conventional doping. However, future technological advances may raise the attractiveness of gene doping, thus making it easier to develop detection strategies. Currently available detection strategies are introduced in this chapter showing that many forms of genetic manipulation can already be detected in principle.

Synthetic certified DNA reference material for analysis of human erythropoietin transgene and transcript in gene doping and gene therapy

7 Jun 2016

Synthetic certified DNA reference material for analysis of human erythropoietin transgene and transcript in gene doping and gene therapy / A. Baoutina, S. Bhat, M. Zheng, L. Partis, M. Dobeson, I.E. Alexander, K.R. Emslie. - (Gene Therapy 23 (2016) 10 (October; p. 708-717)

  • PMID: 27439362
  • DOI: 10.1038/gt.2016.47


There is a recognised need for standardisation of protocols for vector genome analysis used in vector manufacturing, to establish dosage, in biodistribution studies and to detect gene doping in sport. Analysis of vector genomes and transgene expression is typically performed by qPCR using plasmid-based calibrants incorporating transgenic sequences. These often undergo limited characterisation and differ between manufacturers, potentially leading to inaccurate quantification, inconsistent inter-laboratory results and affecting clinical outcomes. Contamination of negative samples with such calibrants could cause false positive results. We developed a design strategy for synthetic reference materials (RMs) with modified transgenic sequences to prevent false positives due to cross-contamination. When such RM is amplified in transgene-specific assays, the amplicons are distinguishable from transgene's amplicons based on size and sequence. Using human erythropoietin as a model, we produced certified RM according to this strategy and following ISO Guide 35. Using non-viral and viral vectors, we validated the effectiveness of this RM in vector genome analysis in blood in vitro. The developed design strategy could be applied to production of RMs for other transgenes, genes or transcripts. Together with validated PCR assays, such RMs form a measurement tool that facilitates standardised, accurate and reliable genetic analysis in various applications.

Establishment of two quantitative nested qPCR assays targeting the human EPO transgene

11 Jan 2016

Establishment of two quantitative nested qPCR assays targeting the human EPO transgene / E.W.I. Neuberger,  I. Perez, C. Le Guiner, D. Moser, T. Ehlert, M. Allais, P. Moullier, P. Simon, R.O. Snyder. - (Gene Therapy 23 (2016) 4 (April); p. 330-339)

  • PMID: 26752352
  • DOI: 10.1038/gt.2016.2


For ethical and safety reasons it is critical to develop easily implemented assays with high sensitivity and specificity for gene doping surveillance. Two nested quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were developed that target the human EPO (hEPO) cDNA sequence in a circular form, representative of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector genomes found in vivo. Through an interlaboratory evaluation, the assays were validated and utilized in an in vitro blinded study. These assays are specific and extremely sensitive with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 copy of circular plasmid DNA and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 10 to 20 copies in the presence of 500 ng of human genomic DNA (hgDNA) extracted from WBCs. Additionally, using the two nested qPCR assays in a non-human primate study, where macaques were injected intramuscularly with a rAAV8 vector harboring a promoterless hEPO cDNA sequence, the viral vector was detected 8 to 14 weeks post-injection in macaque WBCs. The high sensitivity of the nested qPCR approach along with the capability of quantifying target DNA, make this approach a reliable tool for gene doping surveillance and the monitoring of exogenous DNA sequences.

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