Welcome to DOPING.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.


The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.


This website was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.


The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers

This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

More information explaining how to use this website can be found under "help".

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WADA - Strategic Plan 2020-2024

2 Jul 2020

Strategic Plan 2020-2024 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has published its Five-Year Strategic Plan, which lays the foundation for WADA’s strategic activity for 2020-2024 as the Agency is ‘Leading Anti-Doping in a New Era’.

The Strategic Plan was agreed by WADA’s Executive Committee (ExCo) when they met virtually on 15 May 2020; and, was subsequently approved unanimously by the Agency’s Foundation Board by circulatory vote.

Our journey of reflection and discovery

In May 2019, WADA initiated development of the Strategic Plan with a commitment to soliciting feedback from key stakeholders within the anti-doping ecosystem; such as: athletes; representatives of the Sports Movement and Governments of the world; industry influencers; as well as, National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA-accredited laboratories. The feedback acknowledged how much WADA had achieved over its 20-year history; how the Agency’s growth had helped spur on the global movement for doping-free sport; and, it also identified a number of areas where WADA could improve or focus more.

The Strategic Priorities

WADA defined the following Strategic Priorities, which address the key issues and challenges identified via our internal and external consultation:

- Lead: Lead by example by taking bold steps to proactively tackle emerging issues with agility and innovative solutions across all facets of anti-doping.
- Grow Impact: Expand the reach and impact of anti-doping programs by enhancing capacity building and knowledge sharing between Anti-Doping Organizations and empowering local program delivery.
- Be Athlete-Centered: Engage and empower athletes to contribute to the development of anti-doping policies, build an easier anti-doping journey for athletes, and increase the contribution that our programs deliver for athletes and their entourage so that they can build healthy and sustainable careers in sport.
- Collaborate and Unite: Engage and collaborate with everyone involved in anti-doping, in particular with the sports movement and public authorities, to increase support, unity and coherence in everyone’s efforts.
- Be Visible: Raise awareness and shape a proactive narrative that will demonstrate the positive impact of doping-free sport and WADA’s role.
- Perform: Provide greater value to our stakeholders by reducing operational complexities and maximizing impact and cost-effectiveness.

WADA - Strategic Plan 2015-2019

16 Nov 2014

Strategic Plan 2015-2019 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2014


  1. Foreword
  2. Vision, Mission and Values
  3. Summary of Strategic Objectives
  4. Summary of Strategic Objectives


WADA - Strategic Plan 2011-2016

26 Nov 2011

Strategic Plan 2011-2016 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2011


I. Foreword
II. Vision, Mission and Values
III. Summary of Strategic Objectives
IV. Strategic Objectives

WADA has published the fourth revision of its Strategic Plan, which covers the period 2011 to 2016.

The plan, which was created in 2001 and revised in 2004 and 2007, has been developed to align WADA’s activities and resources over the next five years.

It has eight objectives based on the World Anti-Doping Code, the current environment and trends in anti-doping, and WADA’s governance and operational activities.

WADA’s strategic objectives serve to promote the integrity and value of sport and youth, promote the ‘level playing field’ philosophy, and act independently, professionally and without bias or influence.

The eight objectives of WADA’s Strategic Plan are:

- Provide comprehensive leadership on current and emerging issues and in the communication of effective strategies and programs in the campaign for doping-free sport.

- Achieve compliance by all anti-doping and international sport organizations with the Code to honor the rights of clean athletes and maintain the integrity of sport.

- Generate universal involvement of public authorities and public leaders in the campaign against doping in sport, and in particular encourage national laws to allow the sharing of evidence gathered or collected through investigations and inquiries by appropriate bodies.

- Promote an international framework for education programs that instill the values of doping-free sport.

- Promote universal awareness of the ethical aspects and health, legal and social consequences of doping so that stakeholders use that knowledge in their interaction with and education of athletes to prevent doping, protect health and the integrity of sport.

- Implement an international scientific research program and foster an international scientific research environment and expert network that monitors and predicts trends in doping science and actively promotes reliable research outcomes in the effective development, improvement and implementation of detection methods.

- Lead, assist and perform oversight so that every accredited anti-doping laboratory performs at a level consistent with international standards.

- Be a respected organization whose corporate governance and operating standards reflect international best practice.

Cardiac Effects of Anabolic Steroids: Hypertrophy, Ischemia and Electrical Remodelling as Potential Triggers of Sudden Death

1 Jan 2011

Cardiac Effects of Anabolic Steroids : Hypertrophy, Ischemia and Electrical Remodelling as Potential Triggers of Sudden Death / J.H.M. Nascimento, E. Medei. - (Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 11 (2011) 5; p. 425-429).
- PMID: 21443509.
- DOI: 10.2174/138955711795445899


Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives developed to maximise anabolic activity and minimise androgenic activity. AAS abuse is widespread among both athletes and non-athletes at fitness centres and is becoming a public health issue. In addition to their atherogenic, thrombogenic and spastic effects, AAS have direct cardiotoxic effects by causing hypertrophy, electrical and structural remodelling, and contractile dysfunction and by increasing the susceptibility to ischemic injuries. All of these factors contribute to an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

WADA - ONDCP Report to the United States Congress

26 Jun 2020

WADA - ONDCP Report to the United States Congress / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was deeply disappointed to read the United States Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Report regarding WADA funding that it submitted to the U.S. Congress on 17 June and that was made public.

As the U.S. has been a Foundation Board member of WADA since the creation of the Agency in 1999, WADA was particularly troubled by the fact that the ONDCP made allegations towards the Agency without due regard for the facts or context and without having raised any of these concerns during WADA Board meetings.

In Respons WADA sent an annotated version of the ONDCP Report to the Director of the ONDCP, asking him to kindly transmit this version to the U.S. Congress so that the Congress, and/or the appropriations committee, can deliberate and decide on WADA’s future funding based on accurate information. This annotated version outlines (in red) the misleading information and inaccuracies that the Report contains, and what the Report omits in terms of factual information.

CAS 2019_O_6156 IAAF vs RusAF & Aleksandr Shustov

5 Jun 2020

CAS 2019/0/6156 International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) v. Russian Athletic Federation (RUSAF) & Aleksandr Shustov

On 16 July 2016, Professor Richard McLaren (the Independent Person or the IP) issued a first report on the allegations of systemic doping in Russia. Some of the key findings of the First IP Report were that:
1.) the Moscow Laboratory operated, for the protection of doped Russian athletes, within a state-dictated failsafe system, described in the First IP Report as the disappearing positive methodology (DPM) and
2.) the Ministry of Sport of the Russian Federation directed, controlled, and oversaw the manipulation of athletes' analytical results or sample swapping, with the active participation and assistance of the Russian Federal Security Service, the Center of Sports Preparation of National Teams of Russia, and both Moscow and Sochi Laboratories.

On 9 December 2016, the IP elaborated on the First IP Report and released a second report on the doping allegations in Russia, together with the First IP Report. The Second IP Report confirmed the key findings of the First IP Report and described in detail the DPM and the Washout Testing.

Within the context of the Second IP Report, the IP identified a significant number of Russian athletes who were involved in, or benefitted from, the doping schemes and practices that he uncovered. The IP made publicly available on the IP Evidence Disclosure Package (EDP) website the evidence of the involvement of the Identified Athletes. According to the IP and the IAAF, the evidence on the EDP was retrieved from the hard-drive of Dr Rodchenkov and, after the metadata of all the documents was examined, the documents were determined to have been made contemporaneously to the events.

Mr. Aleksandr Shustov is a Russian high jumper competing in the Moscow 2013 IAAF World Championships.

In November 2017 the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Russian Athlete based on the findings of the First and Second IP Report and the disclosed evidence.
After deliberations between the parties the case was referred to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) in February 2019 for a Sole Arbitrator first instance hearing panel.

The IAAF requested the Panel to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete due to aggravating circumstances and for the disqualification of the Athlete’s results from 8 July 2013 until the date of the decision in this case.

The IAAF contended that the Athlete had used anabolic steroids in the lead-up to the Moscow 2013 IAAF World Championships based on the findings of the Second IP Report and the disclosed evidence (the Moscow Washout Schedules). Here 3 official samples, provided by the Athlete, were reported as negative in ADAMS in 2013 by the Moscow Laboratory while the evidence showed that these samples contained prohibited substances. In addition 2 unofficial samples were listed in the Moscow Washout Schedules in 2013 containing prohibited substances. Furthermore one of the Athlete’s B sample bottles had multiple T marks as evidence of tampering.

The Athlete challenged the Sole Arbitrator, denied the use of prohibited substances and disputed the reliability of the filed evidence in this case provided by the IAAF, Professor McLaren and Dr Rodchenkov. Sustained by expert witnesses, he pointed to various inconsistencies in this evidence.

The Sole Arbitrator concludes that the Athlete is present in the Moscow Washout Schedules in respect of the 5 samples listed as belonging to the Athlete. Here the Athlete’s presence in the Moscow Washout Schedules are strong indication that the Athlete used the prohibited substances Methandrostenolone (Methandienone) and Methasterone in 2013 as corroborated by the evidence.
The Sole Arbitrator finds that the Athlete's repeated denials and challenges were exposed as empty and his attempts at alternative scientific explanations for the facts were comprehensively refuted.

Accordingly the Sole Arbitrator finds that the IAAF has proven to his comfortable satisfaction that the Athlete violated the IAAF Rules through the use of multiple prohibited substances on multiple occasions. Considering the seriousness of the Athlete's violations and the fact that many aggravating factors are relevant in this case, the Sole Arbitrator finds that a 4 year period of ineligibility is appropriate. Finally the Sole Arbitrator deems it appropriate to disqualify the Athlete's results from 8 July 2013 until 7 July 2017.

Therefore the Court of Arbitration for Sport decides on 5 June 2020 that:

1.) CAS has jurisdiction to decide on the subject matter of this dispute and the Request for Arbitration of the International Association of Athletics Federations is admissible and is upheld.
2.) Aleksandr Shustov is found guilty of anti-doping rule violations under Rule 32.2(b) of the IAAF Rules.
3.) A period of ineligibility of four ( 4) years is imposed upon Aleksandr Shustov, commencing on the date of this A ward.
4.) All competitive results obtained by Aleksandr Shustov from 8 July 2013 to 7 July 2017 are disqualified, with all resulting consequences (including forfeiture of any titles, awards, medals, profits, prizes and appearance money).
5.) The arbitration costs (to be determined and notified by the CAS Court Office) shall be paid by the Russian Athletic Federation.
6.) The Russian Athletic Federation shall contribute the sum of CHF 2,500 (two thousand five hundred Swiss Francs) to the International Association of Athletics Federations' fees and expenses.
7.) Aleksandr Shustov shall contribute the sum of CHF 2,500 (two thousand five hundred Swiss Francs) to the International Association of Athletics Federations' fees and expenses.
8.) All other and further prayers or requests for relief are dismissed.

WADA - Athletes' Anti-Doping Rights Act

18 Jun 2020

Athletes' Anti-Doping Rights Act / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has published the final designed version of the Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act (Act), which WADA’s Athlete Committee developed over two and half years in consultation with thousands of athletes and stakeholders worldwide.

The purpose of the Act, which is based on the 2021 World Anti-Doping Code (Code) and its related International Standards that take effect on 1 January 2021, is to ensure that the rights of all athletes worldwide to participate in doping-free sport are clearly set out, accessible, and universally applicable. The document was approved by WADA’s Executive Committee on 7 November 2019 during the World Conference on Doping in Sport in Katowice, Poland.

Developed by athletes, for athletes, the Act provides an outline of rights provided by the 2021 Code and International Standards in terms of equality of opportunity, fair testing programs, medical treatment, justice, accountability, education, data protection and more. It also makes recommendations around athletes’ rights to be part of a system that is free from corruption, that they are appropriately represented in terms of governance and decision-making, and that they have a right to legal aid.

This Act is made up of two parts. Part one sets out rights that are found in the Code and International Standards. Part two sets out recommended athlete rights, which are not found in the Code or Standards but are rights that athletes recommend that anti-doping organizations adopt for best practice.


Part One
- Equality of opportunity
- Equitable and fair testing programms
- Medical treatment and protection of health rights
- Right to justice
- Right to accountability
- Whistleblower rights
- Right of education
- Right to data protection
- Right to compensation
- Protected persons rights
- Rights during a sample collection session
- Right to B sample analysis
- Other rights and freedoms
- Application and standing

Part Two
- Right to an anti-doping system
- Free from corruption
- Right to participate in governance and decision-makeing
- Right to legal support

iNADO Update #2020-06

19 Jun 2020

iNADO Update (2020) 6 (19 June)
Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO)


- We welcome 14 RADOs as new Members
- Upcoming Webinar
- How Athletes can change the Sport for Good - by Olympic Athlete Nikki Hamblin
- PWC - Useful Guidelines in place for DCOs during COVID-19
- Journalists reveal a massive Abuse of Pain-Killers in German Football
- Richard Pound: "The Russian Doping Scandal: Some Reflections on Responsibility in Sport Governance"
- Testimonials from Whistleblowers urge for better Practices
- The Impact of COVID-19 on Procedures in Sport Disputes Resolution
- Updates by WADA related to COVID-19
- Limited Supplementary Stakeholder Consultation Phase for the 2021 ISPPPI
International Federations
- FIA sets up Whistleblower Hotline
New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge
- Recent cases of meat contamination

The Cardiac Toxicity of Anabolic Steroids

1 Jul 1998

The Cardiac Toxicity of Anabolic Steroids / Mack Lee Sullivan, Charles M. Martinez, Paul Gennis, E. John Gallagher. - (Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 41 (1998) 1 (July/August); p. 1-15).
- PMID: 9717856.
- DOI: 10.1016/s0033-0620(98)80019-4


Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that were developed as adjunct therapy for a variety of medical conditions. Today they are most commonly used to enhance athletic performance and muscular development. Both illicit and medically indicated anabolic steroid use have been temporally associated with many subsequent defects within each of the body systems. Testosterone is the preferred ligand of the human androgen receptor in the myocardium and directly modulates transcription, translation, and enzyme function. Consequent alterations of cellular pathology and organ physiology are similar to those seen with heart failure and cardiomyopathy. Hypertension, ventricular remodeling, myocardial ischemia, and sudden cardiac death have each been temporally and causally associated with anabolic steroid use in humans. These effects persist long after use has been discontinued and have significant impact on subsequent morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of cardiac disease as a result of anabolic steroid use are discussed in this review.

High Estrogen in Men After Injectable Testosterone Therapy: The Low T Experience

13 Jun 2014

High Estrogen in Men After Injectable Testosterone Therapy: The Low T Experience / Robert S. Tan, Kelly R. Cook, William G. Reilly. - (American Journal of Men's Health 9 (2014) 3 (13 June); p. 229-234).
- PMID: 24928451 DOI: 10.1177/1557988314539000.
- DOI: 10.1177/1557988314539000


Testosterone replacement improves quality of life and is aromatized in men in adipose tissues to estrogen. Hyperestrogenism is believed to be harmful to male sexuality. This is a description of our experience of screening 34,016 men in the Low T Centers, of which approximately 50% were converted to treatment. Men were treated with injectable testosterone, and we have available data from 2009 to 2014. The data were extracted from our electronic health record (AdvancedMD) of 35 Low T Centers across the United States. In all, 7,215 (20.2%) out of the 34,016 patients had high estradiol levels defined as ≥42.6 pg/ml. Estradiol was measured using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Of the patients who had high estradiol levels, the age distribution was as follows: 132/989 (13.3%) were older than 65 years, 3,753/16,955 (22.1%) were between 45 and 65 years; 2,968/15,857 (18.7%) were between 25 and 44 years, 7/215 (3.3%) were younger than 25 years. The difference between extreme age groups (<25 and ≥65) was statistically significant using a chi-square test (p = .013). The correlation coefficient of serum estradiol to age was .53, SD = 8.21. It was observed that practitioners used aromatase inhibitor and selective estrogen receptor modulator to treat symptoms of hyperestrogenism, irrespective of blood estradiol levels. Gynecomastia was rarely documented as a reason for the prescription. Our finding was that high estradiol levels were not associated with higher rates of low libido but established higher rates of documented low libido with those with normal or lower estradiol levels. The difference was statistically significant (p < .05).

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