Ex vivo erythrocyte generation and blood doping

Ex vivo erythrocyte generation and blood doping / Giovanni Lombardi, Giuseppe Banfi, Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar. - (Blood Transfusion 11 (2013) 2 (April); p. 161-163).

  • PMID: 23114519.
  • PMCID: PMC3626461.
  • DOI: 10.2450/2012.0028-12

Doping in sport is widely used by both professional and non-professional athletes to improve performance and increase the probability of success. Anabolic substances are mainly used by dishonest athletes practising power sport disciplines, whereas blood doping is mostly used by those who perform endurance and aerobic sports. Blood doping is based on the use and administration of any illicit substance or procedure aimed at increasing and optimising oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and, therefore, includes blood transfusions, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating substances (namely hormones and growth factors), blood substitutes and artificial altitude facilities, possibly mixed and/or combined.

The scientific as well as the sport medicine communities should be aware of the risk that these novel approaches to the generation of red blood cell (RBC) could have with regards to blood doping and should cooperate closely to increase knowledge about RBC manufacturing and to develop appropriate tests to identify their unfair use in sports.

Original document


1 April 2013
Banfi, Giuseppe
Lombardi, Giovanni
Sanchis-Gomar, Favian
Doping classes
M1. Manipulation Of Blood And Blood Components
Medical terms
Blood doping
Intravenous infusions
Document category
Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
9 September 2019
Date of last modification
2 November 2020
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