Machismo and anabolic steroid misuse among young Latino sexual minority men

Machismo and anabolic steroid misuse among young Latino sexual minority men / John P. Brady, Devon Kimball, Bethany Mendenhall, Aaron J. Blashill. - (Body Image (2019) 30 (September); p. 165-169).
- PMID: 31374390.
- DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2019.07.007


Latino sexual minority men (SMM) have elevated anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse in comparison to their heterosexual and non-Latino peers. Within a gender role framework, desire to present as masculine through heightened muscularity may be related to increased AAS misuse. To assess the association between AAS misuse and a culturally-distinct masculinity, this study examined the relationship of two aspects of machismo, traditional machismo and caballerismo, with AAS misuse in the past month. Participants were 141 young adult Latino SMM recruited from the San Diego area. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire online in English or Spanish, which included measures of machismo and AAS misuse. Out of 141 participants, 27 reported AAS misuse (19.1%). Traditional machismo was positively associated with AAS misuse and caballerismo was negatively associated with AAS misuse. Traditional machismo, which emphasizes dominance, may be positively associated with AAS misuse due to its facilitation of muscle development, which could enable physical intimidation; greater musculature may also counteract assumptions about femininity and sexual orientation. Caballerismo may be negatively associated with AAS by providing a flexible masculinity model that emphasizes social cohesion over dominance. Future AAS misuse interventions could include values-based work and cognitive restructuring of masculinity schemas.


Research / Study
30 July 2019
Blashill, Aaron J.
Brady, John P.
Kimball, Devon
Mendenhall, Bethany
United States of America
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San Diego State University (SDSU)
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
Medical terms
Body image
Substance use research
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9 September 2019
Date of last modification
4 October 2019
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