Testing the validity and reliability of the doping willingness in sport scale

Testing the validity and reliability of the doping willingness in sport scale / Nicholas Stanger, Lisa Whitaker, Susan H. Backhouse. - (Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports (2020) 16 April)

  • doi:10.1111/sms.13683


Although research investigating doping in sport is burgeoning, there is still a lack of proxy measures of doping behaviour that have undergone extensive psychometric testing. To address this issue, we modified a previously used measure of doping willingness in sport and tested aspects of validity and reliability across four studies. In Study 1, we provided support for the face and content validity of the items, and then found support for the factor structure of the scale in a sample of athletes (N = 205) using confirmatory factor analysis. In Study 2, we collected data from an independent sample of athletes (N = 236) to provide further evidence for the factor structure of the scale using confirmatory factor analysis as well as provided evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity. In Study 3, a further independent sample of athletes (N = 144) completed the scale and provided support for discriminant and predictive validity of the scale. In Study 4, we collected data from a further independent sample (N = 74) to provide support for the test‐retest reliability, and stability of items. Lastly, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the samples across Studies 3 and 4, and the composite sample across all four studies which provided further support for the factor structure of the final 8‐item scale. Taken together, these findings provide psychometric support for the scale to be used to measure the willingness of athletes to use banned substances to help facilitate future research investigating doping in sport.


Research / Study
16 April 2020
Backhouse, Susan H.
Stanger, Nicolas
Whitaker, Lisa
United Kingdom
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Leeds Beckett University (LBU)
UK Coaching
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Date generated
22 April 2020
Date of last modification
7 September 2020
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