Evaluation of testosterone/epitestosterone ratio influential factors as determined in doping analysis

Evaluation of testosterone/epitestosterone ratio influential factors as determined in doping analysis / D.H. van de Kerkhof, D. de Boer, J.H. Thijssen, R.A. Maes. - (Journal of Analytical Toxicology 24 (2000) 2 (March); p. 102-115)

  • PMID: 10732948
  • DOI: 10.1093/jat/24.2.102


The ratio of the concentration of testosterone glucuronide to the concentration of epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E ratio) as determined in urine is the most frequently used method to prove testosterone abuse by athletes. A T/E ratio higher than 6 has been considered as proof of abuse in the past; however, cases of naturally occurring higher T/E ratios have been described. Since the introduction of the T/E ratio in doping analysis, the parameters that may or may not influence the T/E ratio, possibly leading to false-positive results, have been debated. To achieve more insight on the influencing circumstances, an overview is given to obtain an objective view on the merits of the urinary T/E ratio. Relevant analytical aspects of the T/E ratio, potential parameters of endogenous and exogenous origins, as well as some alternative methods to determine testosterone abuse, such as the urinary testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, hair analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, are discussed.

Original document


1 March 2000
Boer, Douwe de
Kerkhof, D.H. van de
Maes, Robert A.A.
Thijssen, J.H.
Other organisations
Academisch Ziekenhuis Utrecht (AZU) - Academic Hospital Utrecht
Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht (UMC Utrecht) - University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU)
Universiteit van Utrecht (UU) - Utrecht University
Lisbon, Portugal: Laboratório de Análises de Dopagem (LAD)
Analytical aspects
Testing method development
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
T/E ratio (testosterone / epitestosterone)
Document category
Scientific article
Document type
Pdf file
Date generated
9 March 2021
Date of last modification
12 March 2021
  • Legal Source
  • Education
  • Science
  • Statistics
  • History
Country & language
  • Country
  • Language
Other filters
  • ADRV
  • Legal Terms
  • Sport/IFs
  • Other organisations
  • Laboratories
  • Analytical aspects
  • Doping classes
  • Substances
  • Medical terms
  • Various
  • Version
  • Document category
  • Document type
Publication period