The potential role of oral fluid in antidoping testing

The potential role of oral fluid in antidoping testing / Sebastien Anizan, Marilyn A. Huestis. - (Clinical Chemistry 60 (2014) 2 (1 February); p. 307-322)

  • PMID: 24153253
  • PMCID: PMC4545493
  • DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2013.209676


Background: Currently, urine and blood are the only matrices authorized for antidoping testing by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Although the usefulness of urine and blood is proven, issues remain for monitoring some drug classes and for drugs prohibited only in competition. The alternative matrix oral fluid (OF) may offer solutions to some of these issues. OF collection is easy, noninvasive, and sex neutral and is directly observed, limiting potential adulteration, a major problem for urine testing. OF is used to monitor drug intake in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs programs and potentially could complement urine and blood for antidoping testing in sports.

Content: This review outlines the present state of knowledge and the advantages and limitations of OF testing for each of the WADA drug classes and the research needed to advance OF testing as a viable alternative for antidoping testing.

Summary: Doping agents are either prohibited at all times or prohibited in competition only. Few OF data from controlled drug administration studies are available for substances banned at all times, whereas for some agents prohibited only in competition, sufficient data may be available to suggest appropriate analytes and cutoffs (analytical threshold concentrations) to identify recent drug use. Additional research is needed to characterize the disposition of many banned substances into OF; OF collection methods and doping agent stability in OF also require investigation to allow the accurate interpretation of OF tests for antidoping monitoring.

Original document


1 February 2014
Anizan, Sebastien
Huestis, Marilyn A.
United States of America
Other organisations
National Instute of Drug Abuse
Analytical aspects
Testing method development
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Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
10 March 2021
Date of last modification
12 March 2021
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