A synthetic stimulant never tested in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is identified in multiple dietary supplements

A synthetic stimulant never tested in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is identified in multiple dietary supplements / Pieter A. Cohen, John C. Travis, Bastiaan J. Venhuis. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 7 (2015) 1 (January); p. 83-87)

  • PMID: 25293509
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.1735

Erratum in

  • Drug Test Anal. 2015 Jan;7(1):88
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.1762


A synthetic stimulant never before studied in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), was suspected of being present in dietary supplements. DMBA is an analogue of the pharmaceutical stimulant, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), which was recently banned by the US Food and Drug Administration. We obtained all dietary supplements sold by US distributors that listed an ingredient on the label, such as AMP Citrate, that might be a marketing name for DMBA. Supplements were analyzed for the presence and quantity of DMBA. Fourteen supplements met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometry and a reference standard. The identity of DMBA was confirmed in 12 supplements in the range of 13 to 120 mg DMBA per serving. Following recommendations on the supplement label for maximum daily intake, customers would consume from 26 to 320 mg of DMBA per day. Supplements containing DMBA were marketed to improve athletic performance, increase weight loss and enhance brain function. DMBA has never before been detected in supplements. The stimulant has never been studied in humans; its efficacy and safety are entirely unknown. Regulatory agencies should act expeditiously to warn consumers and remove DMBA from all dietary supplements.

This erratum corrects DOI:10.1002/dta.1735 published online 8 October 2014 in Wiley Online Library.

The Frenzy products we tested for our study were not purchased in the USA nor were they shipped from any retailer/distributor to the USA; rather, as we said in the Short Communication, the Frenzy products were purchased from an online retailer in the UK. While we are not aware of Driven Sports (the manufacturer of Frenzy) or any of its authorized US distributors selling Frenzy in the USA, as of the relevant time period of our study (April 2014), the USA Today was reporting that on April 9, 2014, Frenzy was available for sale on ebay's U.S. site. [A. Young. FDA warns maker of controversial sports supplement Craze. USA Today, April 15, 2014.] We have since confirmed that Frenzy is still offered for sale on ebay's U.S. site and can be purchased from sellers (including those sellers based in the US) on eBay's U.S. site. The inclusion criteria, therefore, include products containing DMBA available to U.S. consumers from various on‐line sources.

Original document


Research / Study
8 October 2014
Cohen, Pieter A.
Travis, John C.
Venhuis, Bastiaan J.
United States of America
Other organisations
Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA)
National Sanitation Foundation (NSF International)
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) - National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
Doping classes
S6. Stimulants
4-Methylpentan-2-amine (1,3-dimethylbutylamine)
Document category
Scientific article
Document type
Pdf file
Date generated
22 March 2021
Date of last modification
1 April 2021
  • Legal Source
  • Education
  • Science
  • Statistics
  • History
Country & language
  • Country
  • Language
Other filters
  • ADRV
  • Legal Terms
  • Sport/IFs
  • Other organisations
  • Laboratories
  • Analytical aspects
  • Doping classes
  • Substances
  • Medical terms
  • Various
  • Version
  • Document category
  • Document type
Publication period