Improving detection capabilities of doping agents by identification of new phase I and phase II metabolites by LC-MS/MS / Cristina Gómez Castellà. - Barcelona : Pompeu Fabra University, 2014. - (TESI DOCTORAL UPF / 2013)
Metabolic studies of doping agents have been traditionally performed by using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the last years, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has demonstrated to offer new possibilities to perform metabolic studies. The objective of this thesis was to study the metabolism (phase I and phase II) of different doping agents by LC-MS/MS in order to improve the detection capabilities of the studied substances.
For mesocarb, a thermolabile compound, the parent drug 19 metabolites were detected in urine including mono-, di- and tri-hydroxylated metabolites excreted free or conjugated with glucuronic acid and sulphate. For toremifene, an anti-estrogenic drug with poor electron ionization properties, the parent drug and 20 metabolites were detected in urine. The structure of most of the metabolites was proposed.
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) metabolites conjugated with sulphate were investigated to improve the retrospectivity of the detection of these compounds. A study of hydrolysis and MS/MS behaviour of sulphate metabolites of AAS was performed, and sulphate conjugated metabolites of boldenone, methyltestosterone and metandienone were studied. Boldenone sulphate and epiboldenone sulphate were identified as boldenone metabolites in humans. They can be used as markers of exogenous boldenone administration. For methyltestosterone, three new sulphate metabolites were detected and structures were proposed. One of them, 17β-methyl-5α-androstan-3α,17α-diol 3α-sulphate was detected in urine up to 21 days after methyltestosterone administration, improving three times the retrospectivity of the detection with respect to other previously reported long-term metabolites. Several new sulphate metabolites were detected after metandienone administration. One of them was characterized as 18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methylandrost-1,4,13-triene-3-one conjugated with sulphate, and it was detected up to 26 days after administration, improving the retrospectivity of the detection with respect to other long-term metabolites described.
The usefulness of LC-MS/MS for the detection and characterization of metabolites of doping agents has been demonstrated, especially for the study of new phase II metabolites and for metabolic studies of compounds where GC-MS shows relevant limitations.