C19-steroids as androgen receptor modulators : design, discovery, and structure-activity relationship of new steroidal androgen receptor antagonists / Padma Marwah, Ashok Marwah, Henry A. Lardy, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Chawnshang Chang. - (Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 14 (2006) 17 (1 September); p. 5933-5947)
- PMID: 16759873
- DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2006.05.022
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant steroid in human circulating blood, is metabolized to sex hormones and other C19-steroids. Our previous collaborative study demonstrated that androst-5-ene-3beta,17beta-diol (Adiol) and androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (Adione), metabolites of DHEA, can activate androgen receptor (AR) target genes. Adiol is maintained at a high concentration in prostate cancer tissue; even after androgen deprivation therapy and its androgen activity is not inhibited by the antiandrogens currently used to treat prostate cancer patients. We have synthesized possible metabolites of DHEA and several synthetic analogues and evaluated their role in androgen receptor transactivation to identify AR modulators. Steroids with low androgenic potential in PC-3 cell lines were evaluated for anti-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and anti-Adiol activity. We discovered three potent antiandrogens: 3beta-acetoxyandrosta-1,5-diene-17-one 17-ethylene ketal (ADEK), androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione 17-ethylene ketal (OAK), and 3beta-hydroxyandrosta-5,16-diene (HAD) that antagonized the effects of DHT as well as of Adiol on the growth of LNCaP cells and on the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In vivo tests of these compounds will reveal their potential as potent antiandrogens for the treatment of prostate cancer.