Prevalence and profile of users and non-users of anabolic steroids among resistance training practitioners

Prevalence and profile of users and non-users of anabolic steroids among resistance training practitioners / Ericson Pereira, Samuel Jorge Moyses, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio, Daniel Komarchewski Mendes, Diego Sgarbi D.A. Silva, Everdan Carneiro, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio Hardy, Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann. - (BMC Public Health 19 (2019) 1650 (9 December)

  • PMID: 31818274
  • PMCID: PMC6902556
  • DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-8004-6


Background: To verify the prevalence and profile of users and non-users of anabolic steroid (AS) among resistance training practitioners.

Methods: An observational, cross-sectional survey was performed in 100 gyms in Curitiba city, involving 5773 individuals and self-administered questionnaires. The chi-square and z-tests of proportions were used for comparison between the groups (p < 0.05).

Results: 83.2% did not use, 9.1% formerly used, 3.4% currently used, and 4.3% intended used AS. The prevalence of former or current AS users was 16.9 and 6.5% among men and women, respectively. The prevalence ratios were as follows: 1) 2.6 male users for each woman; 2) 3.3 individuals aged 30-44 years and 2.8 individuals aged 18-29 years for each individual aged over 45 years. Beginners were not interested in using AS, but individuals who had trained longer had higher prevalence of AS use.

Conclusions: The gym environment encouraged the use of AS owing to aesthetic appeal. Thus, suggesting the need for actions to prevent abusive use of AS considering the practitioners profile (practitioners were young, university and single).

Original document


1 May 2021
Bettega, Patricia Vida Cassi
Carneiro, Everdan
Hardy, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio
Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido
Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodriques
Komarchewski Mendes, Daniel
Moyses, Samuel Jorge
Pereira, Ericson
Rosa, Edvaldo Antônia Ribeiro
Silva, Diego Sgarbi
United States of America
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Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR) - Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná
University of Toledo (UToledo)
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
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Substance use research
Gym/fitness environment
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Date generated
22 April 2021
Date of last modification
4 May 2021
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