His Biceps Become Him: A Test of Objectification Theory’s Application to Drive for Muscularity and Propensity for Steroid Use in College Men / Mike C. Parent, Bonnie Moradi. - (Journal of Counseling Psychology 58 (2011) 2 (April); p. 246-256)
- PMID: 21142351
- DOI: 10.1037/a0021398
Men's body image problems may manifest as an unhealthy drive for muscularity and propensity to use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Aspects of objectification theory were integrated with literature on men's drive for muscularity and AAS use to identify correlates of these problems. The resultant model was tested with path analyses of data from 270 college men. First, consistent with prior research on objectification theory, results indicated that body surveillance partially mediated the link of internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness with body shame. Second, positive outcome expectation for AAS use partially mediated the link of drive for muscularity with intention to use AAS. Third, drive for muscularity partially mediated the links of internalization with outcome expectation for AAS use and intention to use AAS. Finally, outcome expectation for AAS use was an additional partial mediator of the link of internalization with intention to use AAS. Body surveillance and body shame did not have unique direct or mediated relations with drive for muscularity or AAS variables. These findings point to internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness as the nexus of overlap between the objectification theory variables and men's drive for muscularity and propensity to use AAS.