Muscle Dysmorphia, Self-esteem, and Loneliness among Gay and Bisexual Men / Michael P. Chaney. - (International Journal of Men's Health 7 (2008) 2 (Summer); p. 157-170)
- DOI: 10.3149/jmh.0702.157
Although past research indicates gay and bisexual men are more concerned with muscularity than their heterosexual counterparts, studies investigating psychosocial factors contributing to muscle dysmorphia (MD) among gay and bisexual men are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, loneliness, and MD among gay and bisexual men. Participants (N = 304) completed the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), and UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-version 3). A relationship among self-esteem, loneliness, and MD was found. Gay and bisexual men who reported more symptoms of MD also reported lower self-esteem and increased feelings of loneliness, than men who reported fewer MD symptoms. Psychological and environmental variables associated with gay and bisexual men are explored to help explain these results. Implications for future MD research among other oppressed populations also are discussed.