Excretion of endogenous boldione in human urine: influence of phytosterol consumption

Excretion of endogenous boldione in human urine: influence of phytosterol consumption / Karolien Verheyden, Herlinde Noppe, Lynn Vanhaecke, Klaas Wille, Julie Vanden Bussche, Karen Bekaert, Olivier Thas, Colin R. Janssen, Hubert F. De Brabander. - (The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 117 (2009) 1-3 (October); p. 8-14)

  • PMID: 19520162
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.06.001


Boldenone (17-hydroxy-androsta-1,4-diene-3-one, Bol) and boldione (androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, ADD), are currently listed as exogenous anabolic steroids by the World Anti-Doping Agency. However, it has been reported that these analytes can be produced endogenously. Interestingly, only for Bol a comment is included in the list on its potential endogenous origin. In this study, the endogenous origin of ADD in human urine was investigated, and the potential influence of phytosterol consumption was evaluated.

We carried out a 5-week in vivo trial with both men (n=6) and women (n=6) and measured alpha-boldenone, beta-boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, beta-testosterone and alpha-testosterone in their urine using gas chromatography coupled to multiple mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The results demonstrate that endogenous ADD is sporadically produced at concentrations ranging from 0.751 ng mL(-1) to 1.73 ng mL(-1), whereas endogenous Bol could not be proven. We also tested the effect of the daily consumption of a commercially available phytosterol-enriched yogurt drink on the presence of these analytes in human urine. Results from this study could not indicate a relation of ADD-excretion with the consumption of phytosterols at the recommended dose. The correlations between ADD and other steroids were consistently stronger for volunteers consuming phytosterols (test) than for those refraining from phytosterol consumption (control). Excretion of AED, bT and aT did not appear to be dependent on the consumption of phytosterols.

This preliminary in vivo trial indicates the endogenous origin of boldione or ADD in human urine, independent on the presence of any structural related analytes such as phytosterols.

Original document


Research / Study
9 June 2009
Bekaert, Karen
De Brabander, Hubert F.
Janssen, Colin R.
Noppe, Herline
Thas, Olivier
Vanden Bussche, Julie
Vanhaecke, Lynn
Verheyden, Karolien
Wille, Klaas
Other organisations
Universiteit Gent (UGent) - Ghent University
Ghent, Belgium: DoCoLab Universiteit Gent-UGent
Analytical aspects
Mass spectrometry analysis
Threshold for endogenous substances
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
Boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione)
Document category
Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
20 July 2021
Date of last modification
27 July 2021
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