A steroidomic approach for biomarkers discovery in doping control

A steroidomic approach for biomarkers discovery in doping control / Julien Boccard, Flavia Badoud, Elia Grata, Samia Ouertani, Mohamed Hanafi, Gérard Mazerolles, Pierre Lantéri, Jean-Luc Veuthey, Martial Saugy, Serge Rudaz. - (Forensic Science International 213 (2011) 1-3 (10 December); p. 85-94)

  • PMID: 21831550
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.07.023


Anti-doping authorities have high expectations of the athlete steroidal passport (ASP) for anabolic-androgenic steroids misuse detection. However, it is still limited to the monitoring of known well-established compounds and might greatly benefit from the discovery of new relevant biomarkers candidates. In this context, steroidomics opens the way to the untargeted simultaneous evaluation of a high number of compounds. Analytical platforms associating the performance of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and the high mass-resolving power of quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometers are particularly adapted for such purpose. An untargeted steroidomic approach was proposed to analyse urine samples from a clinical trial for the discovery of relevant biomarkers of testosterone undecanoate oral intake. Automatic peak detection was performed and a filter of reference steroid metabolites mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) values was applied to the raw data to ensure the selection of a subset of steroid-related features. Chemometric tools were applied for the filtering and the analysis of UHPLC-QTOF-MS(E) data. Time kinetics could be assessed with N-way projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (N-PLS-DA) and a detection window was confirmed. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (O-PLS-DA) classification models were evaluated in a second step to assess the predictive power of both known metabolites and unknown compounds. A shared and unique structure plot (SUS-plot) analysis was performed to select the most promising unknown candidates and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were computed to assess specificity criteria applied in routine doping control. This approach underlined the pertinence to monitor both glucuronide and sulphate steroid conjugates and include them in the athletes passport, while promising biomarkers were also highlighted.

Original document


Research / Study
9 August 2011
Badoud, Flavia
Boccard, Julien
Grata, Elia
Hanafi, Mohamed
Lantéri, Pierre
Mazerolles, Gérard
Ouertani, Samia
Rudaz, Serge
Saugy, Martial
Veuthey, Jean-Luc
Other organisations
École nationale vétérinaire, agroalimentaire et de l'alimentation, Nantes-Atlantique (ONIRIS) - Nantes-Atlantic National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering
Université Claude-Bernard Lyon 1 (UCBL) - Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
Université de Genève - University of Geneva
Université de Lausanne (UNIL) - University of Lausanne
Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA) - University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne
Université Nantes Angers Le Mans (UNAM) - Nantes Angers Le Mans University
Lausanne, Switzerland: Laboratoire Suisse d’Analyse du Dopage
Analytical aspects
Mass spectrometry analysis
Testing method development
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
Doping control
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Pdf file
Date generated
28 July 2021
Date of last modification
29 July 2021
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