Screening for the calstabin-ryanodine receptor complex stabilizers JTV-519 and S-107 in doping control analysis / Mario Thevis, Simon Beuck, Andreas Thomas, Maxie Kohler, Nils Schlörer, Ileana Vajiala, Wilhelm Schänzer. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 1 (2009) 1 (January); p. 32-42)
- PMID: 20355157
- DOI: 10.1002/dta.13
Recent studies outlined the influence of exercise on the stability of the skeletal muscle calstabin1-ryanodine receptor1-complex, which represents a major Ca(2+) release channel. The progressive modification of the type-1 skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) combined with reduced levels of calstabin1 and phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 resulted in a Ca(2+) leak that has been a suggested cause of muscle damage and impaired exercise capacity. The use of 1,4-benzothiazepine derivatives such as the drug candidates JTV-519 and S-107 enhanced rebinding of calstabin1 to RyR1 and resulted in significantly improved skeletal muscle function and exercise performance in rodents. Due to the fact that the mechanism of RyR1 remodelling under exercise conditions were proven to be similar in mice and humans, a comparable effect of JTV-519 and S-107 on trained athletes is expected, making the compounds relevant for doping controls. After synthesis of JTV-519, S-107, and a putative desmethylated metabolite of S-107, target compounds were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI)-high-resolution/high-accuracy Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Collision-induced dissociation pathways were suggested based on the determination of elemental compositions of product ions and H/D-exchange experiments. The most diagnostic product ion of JTV-519 was found at m/z 188 (representing the 4-benzyl-1-methyl piperidine residue), and S-107 as well as its desmethylated analog yielded characteristic fragments at m/z 153 and 138 (accounting for 1-methoxy-4-methylsulfanyl-benzene and 4-methoxy-benzenethiol residues, respectively). The analytes were implemented in existing doping control screening procedures based on liquid chromatography, multiple reaction monitoring and simultaneous precursor ion scanning modes using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Validation items such as specificity, recovery (68-92%), lower limit of detection (0.1-0.2 ng/mL), intraday (5.2-18.5%) and interday (8.7-18.8%) precision as well as ion suppression/enhancement effects were determined.