Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Sports, Health, and Society

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Sports, Health, and Society / Shalender Bhasin, Disa L. Hatfield, Jay R. Hoffman, William J. Kraemer, Michele Labotz, Stuart M. Phillips, Nicholas A. Ratamess. - (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 50 (2021) 8 (August); p. 1778-1794)

  • PMID: 34261998
  • DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002670


This consensus statement is an update of the 1987 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position stand on the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Substantial data have been collected since the previous position stand, and AAS use patterns have changed significantly. The ACSM acknowledges that lawful and ethical therapeutic use of AAS is now an accepted mainstream treatment for several clinical disorders; however, there is increased recognition that AAS are commonly used illicitly to enhance performance and appearance in several segments of the population, including competitive athletes. The illicit use of AAS by competitive athletes is contrary to the rules and ethics of many sport governing bodies. Thus, the ACSM deplores the illicit use of AAS for athletic and recreational purposes. This consensus statement provides a brief history of AAS use, an update on the science of how we now understand AAS to be working metabolically/biochemically, potential side effects, the prevalence of use among athletes, and the use of AAS in clinical scenarios.

Original document


1 August 2021
Bhasin, Shalender
Hatfield, Disa L.
Hoffman, Jay R.
Kraemer William J.
Labotz, Michele
Phillips, Stuart M.
Ratamess, Nicholas A.
United States of America
Legal Terms
Anti-Doping policy
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American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
Ariel University
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH)
McMaster University
Ohio State University (OSU)
The College of New Jersey (TCNJ)
University of Rhode Island (URI)
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
Medical terms
Health effects
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Scientific article
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Pdf file
Date generated
7 October 2021
Date of last modification
15 October 2021
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