Codeine and Tramadol Use in Athletes : A Potential for Abuse / Thomas Zandonai, Mónica Escorial, Ana M. Peiró. - (Frontiers in Pharmacology (2021) 10 June; 661781 : p. 1-5)
- PMID: 34177579
- PMCID: PMC8222773
- DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.661781
Analgesic use by athletes is common. It has been observed that athletes used analgesics up to four times more often than their age-matched general population. Notably, codeine and tramadol are not included in the WADA list of prohibited substances in sport. Their use could be an attempt to compensate for fatigue, pain, and inflammation caused by injuries or overtraining. It has been described that this abuse can be related to false expectations of performance improvement. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have investigated codeine’s effects on exercise performance. We present an overview evidencing the athletes’ use of codeine and tramadol and their potential abuse and addiction.