Psychiatric and hostility factors related to use of anabolic steroids in monozygotic twins

Psychiatric and hostility factors related to use of anabolic steroids in monozygotic twins / Thomas A. Pagonis, Nikiforos V. Angelopoulos, George N. Koukoulis, Christos S. Hadjichristodoulou, Paraskevi N. Toli

  • European Psychiatry 21 (2006) 8 (December); p. 563-569
  • PMID: 16529916
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2005.11.002


Introduction: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are derived by chemical manipulation of the testosterone molecule. The specified category of drugs produces anabolic, androgenic and psycho-active effects including elevated aggressive, hostile, violent and anti social behavior.

Objective: The objective of this case report observational study was to evaluate the possible psychological consequences of AS use in the twin user of each pair, compared with the non-user twin.

Methodology: We studied two pairs of male monozygotic twins: one pair 24 years old and the other 31 years old, with absolute genome and phenotype similarity. One of the twins of each pair used AAS while the other did not. Both pairs lived in Hellenic provincial towns and followed a common training and nutrition regime. The psychometric instruments used were the Symptoms Check List-90 (SCL-90) and the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ). The psychometric evaluations took place within a time interval of 6 months.

Results: The study found high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety and paranoid ideation in the twins who used AS. The non-user twins showed no deviation from their initial status.

Conclusion: The use of AAS induced several important psychiatric changes in monozygotic twins which were not present in the twin who did not use AAS.


Case report
Research / Study
10 March 2006
Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.
Hadjichristodoulou, Christos S.
Koukoulis, George N.
Pagonis, Thomas A.
Toli, Paraskevi N.
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Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλίας - University of Thessaly (UTH)
Doping classes
S1. Anabolic Agents
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Health effects
Psychiatric disorders
Violent behavior
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Date generated
15 December 2021
Date of last modification
30 December 2021
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