Enclomiphene citrate : A treatment that maintains fertility in men with secondary hypogonadism / Joshua A. Earl, Edward D. Kim
- Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 14 (2019) 3 (May), p. 157-165
- PMID: 31063005
- DOI: 10.1080/17446651.2019.1612239
Hypogonadism is an important issue among the male population. Treatments such as exogenous testosterone have become very popular. One of the adverse effects of testosterone is its suppression of fertility. This has lead to the use of alternative therapies such as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that aim to correct hypogonadism without reducing fertility. Areas covered: The SERM, clomiphene citrate, which is approved by the FDA for the treatment of ovarian dysfunction, has been shown to have beneficial effects on male hypogonadism. Clomiphene citrate exists as a mixture of both the cis-isomer (zuclomiphene) and the trans-isomer (enclomiphene). The literature has suggested that most of the beneficial effects of clomiphene are due to the trans-isomer enclomiphene. Zuclomiphene contributes little to the intended outcomes. The purpose of this drug profile is to examine the available literature on the trans-isomer enclomiphene.
Expert opinion: Enclomiphene has been shown to increase testosterone levels while stimulating FSH and LH production. Initial studies demonstrated that enclomiphene maintains the androgenic benefit of clomiphene citrate without the undesirable effects attributable to zuclomiphene. This article reviews the difficulties associated with the FDA approval of a new molecular entity related to the treatment of hypogonadism.