"Sports Food" - Internet Marketing of Products Advertised as Hormone-modulating or Pharmaceutically Active

1 Sep 2008

Sportlernahrungsmittel : Internethandel von als „hormonell-aktiv“ beworbenen Produkten / Sigrid Löbell-Behrends, Daniela Schwelzer, Matthias Kohl-Himmelseher, Sibylle Maixner, Gerhard Marx, Dirk W. Lachenmeier

  • Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 104 (2008) 9 (September), p. 415-422


Summary

There is a large variety of food products intended for athletes and sportsmen on the market. These products are often advertised with claims such as enhancement of performance, ability for regeneration, or even with an influence on hormonal balance. In recent years, the number of such products marketed on the internet has been considerably increased. In this study, we have examined the marketing of 'sports food' offered on the internet with special focus on products that are advertised as hormone-modulating or pharmaceutically active.

Of the 79 controlled products, 44 (56 %) contained herbal ingredients such as Lepidium meyenii, Avena sativa, Tribulus terrestris or Trigonella foenum-graecum. The advertised effects of these herbs are in most cases scientifically unproven. An additional 17 products (22 %) contained pharmaceutically active substances in an inadmissible manner, including dehydroepiandrosterone, its 7-keto derivative, and somatotropine as well as some traditional herbal medicines such as extracts of Serenoa repens or of Mucuna pruriens, which contains L-dopa. To protect athletes from health risks as well as from financial fraud, procedures should be developed to place a high priority on controlling the grey market for such products on the internet.



Zusammenfassung


Auf dem Markt wird eine große Vielfalt an Lebensmitteln für Sportler angeboten, bei denen in der Werbung oft eine Steigerung von Leistungsfähigkeit und Regenerationsfähigkeit bis hin zu einer Beeinflussung des Hormonhaushaltes suggeriert wird. Die Zahl der über das Internet angebotenen Produkte hat sich dabei in den letzten Jahren immer weiter vergrößert. In dieser Untersuchung wurde der Internethandel mit „Sportlernahrungsmitteln“ untersucht, wobei der Fokus auf Produkte gelegt wurde, die mit einer hormonmodulierenden oder arzneilichen Wirkung beworben werden.

Von 79 überprüften Produkten enthielten 44 (56 %) pflanzliche Zutaten wie Lepidium meyenii, Avena sativa, Tribulus terrestris oder Trigonella foenum-graecum, deren beworbene hormonmodulierende Wirkung wissenschaftlich nicht in jedem Fall hinreichend gesichert ist. Weitere 17 (22 %) Produkte enthielten unzulässigerweise arzneilich wirksame Bestandteile, darunter Stoffe wie Dehydroepiandrosteron, dessen 7-Keto-Derivat, oder Somatotropin, und traditionelle pflanzliche Arzneimittel
wie Extrakte aus Serenoa repens oder aus der L-Dopa-haltigen Mucuna pruriens. Daher sind mit hoher Priorität Konzepte zu entwickeln, wie der Graumarkt mit derartigen Produkten im Internet wirksam kontrolliert werden kann, um den Sportler vor Gesundheitsgefahren wie auch wirtschaftlicher Beeinträchtigung durch wirkungslose Produkte zu schützen.

#Drugsforsale: An exploration of the use of social media and encrypted messaging apps to supply and access drugs

7 Dec 2018

#Drugsforsale : An exploration of the use of social media and encrypted messaging apps to supply and access drugs / Leah Moyle, Andrew Childs, Ross Coomber, Monica J. Barratt

  • International Journal of Drug Policy 63 (January 2019), p. 101-110
  • PMID: 30530252
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.08.005


Abstract

Background: The use of new technology is frequently harnessed by drug suppliers to both increase profits and reduce risk. While a growing body of research has investigated drug sales through online pharmacies and cryptomarkets, despite growing media interest, no published research exists on how smartphone-enabled social media and messaging applications ('apps') are utilised in the drug economy. This study analyses the ways such apps (e.g. Snapchat, Instagram and WhatsApp) are utilised to supply and access drugs.

Methods: Three data collection methods were employed: an international online survey of 358 drug users that had either used or considered using apps to access drugs; 'rapid' interviews (n = 20) with a similar population; and in-depth interviews (n = 27). Key issues explored were the perceived benefits and risks associated with sourcing drugs through apps, with specific attention paid to novel supply and purchasing practices.

Results: Apps appear to provide a quick, convenient method for connecting buyer and seller. They were often viewed as a valuable intermediary option between cryptomarkets and street dealing, providing 'secure' features and the opportunity to preview product without the requirement for technical expertise. Apps are used in a range of novel and diverse ways, including as social networking spaces in which drugs are advertised, and as encrypted messaging services for communicating with known sellers and arranging transactions. Key anxieties related to potential for exposure to law enforcement and legitimacy of substances.

Conclusion: Though 'social supply' through friends is still typically preferred and there is a degree of wariness toward app-mediated supply, our data indicate that apps are fast becoming a viable option for accessing drugs. Apps can provide an easily accessible platform that connects buyers with commercial drug suppliers and substances that may otherwise remain elusive. Potential harms can be reduced through the provision of information which demystify common-sense assumptions that apps are secure and that this 'visual' drug economy promotes safer purchasing practices.

Keywords: Apps; Cryptomarkets; Dark net; Drug dealing; Drug markets; Risk taking.

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?

9 Apr 2012

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic? / Ying Zhang, Ross M. Woods, Zachary S. Breitbach and Daniel W. Armstrong. - (Drug Testing and Analysis Early View, Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012)


 

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant existing in various pre-workout supplements and often labelled as part of geranium plants. The safety and origin of DMAA in these supplements is the subject of intense debate. In this study, the enantiomeric and diastereomeric ratios of two different known synthetic DMAA compounds, as well as the total concentrations of DMAA and its stereoisomeric ratios in 13 different supplements,were determined by gas chromatography. The stereoisomeric ratios of DMAA in the synthetic standards and in all the commercial supplements were indistinguishable. Eight different commercial geranium extracts of different geographical origins (China and the Middle East) were examined for the presence of DMAA by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). No DMAA was detected in any of the eight geranium products with a limit of detection of 10 parts per billion (w/w).

1,5-Dimethylhexylamine (Octodrine) in Sports and Weight Loss Supplements: Natural Constituent or Synthetic Chemical?

15 Apr 2018

1,5-Dimethylhexylamine (Octodrine) in Sports and Weight Loss Supplements : Natural Constituent or Synthetic Chemical? / Mei Wang, Saqlain Haider, Amar G. Chittiboyina, Jon F. Parcher, Ikhlas A. Khan. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 152 (2018) 15 April; p. 298-305)

  • PMID: 29454882
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2018.02.008


Abstract

In the past years, there has been a mounting trend toward the addition of sympathomimetic stimulants in sports and weight loss supplements sold in the US and claimed to be from natural constituents. The latest among those pharmaceutical stimulants is 1,5-dimethylhexylamine (1,5-DMHA or octodrine), an ingredient in newly introduced sports and weight loss supplements with its 'natural' origin being cited from Aconitum or Kigelia plants. In order to validate the natural existence of 1,5-DMHA, two GC/MS methods were developed. One method involved using thick film megabore capillary columns to analyze the underivatized 1,5-DMHA. The second method was to determine enantiomeric distribution of 1,5-DMHA. Fifteen Aconitum or Kigelia plant samples originating from various locations were analyzed, and none of them contained 1,5-DMHA within the limit of detection (25 ng/mL) of the method. In contrast, although 1,5-DMHA was listed on the labels or website for all the 13 dietary supplements, only four products were found to contain this compound, with the highest quantity being reported as 112 mg per serving size. This is equivalent to more than three times the highest pharmaceutical dose established in Europe. The enantiomeric ratios of 1,5-DMHA in these products were determined to be between 0.9-1.0 (expressed as peak area ratio of one enantiomer over another), suggesting racemic nature. Interestingly, two byproducts from 1,5-DMHA synthesis were identified in commercial supplements containing 1,5-DMHA, indicating that 1,5-DMHA indeed originated from a poor quality source. Overall, the significant amount of 1,5-DMHA observed in the supplements, the enantiomeric distribution and the presence of the synthetic byproducts all suggested the synthetic origin of 1,5-DMHA in the commercial products.

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - 100% Dope Free campaign

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik 100% Dope Free campagne / Dopingautoriteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - All interviews REAAL Tennismasters

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Alle interviews REAAL Tennismasters / Dopingautoriteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Interviews REAAL Tennismasters (Introduction)

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Interviews REAAL Tennismasters (Introductie) / Dopingautoriteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Medication

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Medicijnen / Dopingautorteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Nutritional Supplements

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Voedingssupplementen / Dopingautorteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Recreational Drugs

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Drugs / Dopingautorteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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