1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?

9 Apr 2012

Drug Testing and Analysis Early View, Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012
Ying Zhang, Ross M. Woods, Zachary S. Breitbach and Daniel W. Armstrong

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant existing in various pre-workout supplements and often labelled as part of geranium
plants. The safety and origin of DMAA in these supplements is the subject of intense debate. In this study, the enantiomeric
and diastereomeric ratios of two different known synthetic DMAA compounds, as well as the total concentrations of DMAA and its
stereoisomeric ratios in 13 different supplements,were determined by gas chromatography. The stereoisomeric ratios of DMAA in
the synthetic standards and in all the commercial supplements were indistinguishable. Eight different commercial geranium
extracts of different geographical origins (China and the Middle East) were examined for the presence of DMAA by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). No DMAA was detected in any of the eight geranium products with a limit of detection of 10 parts per billion (w/w).

1,5-Dimethylhexylamine (Octodrine) in Sports and Weight Loss Supplements: Natural Constituent or Synthetic Chemical?

15 Apr 2018

1,5-Dimethylhexylamine (Octodrine) in Sports and Weight Loss Supplements : Natural Constituent or Synthetic Chemical? / Mei Wang, Saqlain Haider, Amar G. Chittiboyina, Jon F. Parcher, Ikhlas A. Khan. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 152 (2018) 15 April; p. 298-305)

  • PMID: 29454882
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2018.02.008


Abstract

In the past years, there has been a mounting trend toward the addition of sympathomimetic stimulants in sports and weight loss supplements sold in the US and claimed to be from natural constituents. The latest among those pharmaceutical stimulants is 1,5-dimethylhexylamine (1,5-DMHA or octodrine), an ingredient in newly introduced sports and weight loss supplements with its 'natural' origin being cited from Aconitum or Kigelia plants. In order to validate the natural existence of 1,5-DMHA, two GC/MS methods were developed. One method involved using thick film megabore capillary columns to analyze the underivatized 1,5-DMHA. The second method was to determine enantiomeric distribution of 1,5-DMHA. Fifteen Aconitum or Kigelia plant samples originating from various locations were analyzed, and none of them contained 1,5-DMHA within the limit of detection (25 ng/mL) of the method. In contrast, although 1,5-DMHA was listed on the labels or website for all the 13 dietary supplements, only four products were found to contain this compound, with the highest quantity being reported as 112 mg per serving size. This is equivalent to more than three times the highest pharmaceutical dose established in Europe. The enantiomeric ratios of 1,5-DMHA in these products were determined to be between 0.9-1.0 (expressed as peak area ratio of one enantiomer over another), suggesting racemic nature. Interestingly, two byproducts from 1,5-DMHA synthesis were identified in commercial supplements containing 1,5-DMHA, indicating that 1,5-DMHA indeed originated from a poor quality source. Overall, the significant amount of 1,5-DMHA observed in the supplements, the enantiomeric distribution and the presence of the synthetic byproducts all suggested the synthetic origin of 1,5-DMHA in the commercial products.

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - 100% Dope Free campaign

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik 100% Dope Free campagne / Dopingautoriteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - All interviews REAAL Tennismasters

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Alle interviews REAAL Tennismasters / Dopingautoriteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Interviews REAAL Tennismasters (Introduction)

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Interviews REAAL Tennismasters (Introductie) / Dopingautoriteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Medication

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Medicijnen / Dopingautorteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Nutritional Supplements

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Voedingssupplementen / Dopingautorteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free - Tennis - The risks of unintentional doping use - Recreational Drugs

20 May 2011

100% Dope Free - Tennis is te mooi voor doping: de risico's van onbewust doping gebruik - Drugs / Dopingautorteit ; Koninklijke Nederlandse Lawn Tennis Bond (KNLTB)

KNLTB promotievideo over het voorkomen van onbewust dopinggebruik.

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free campaign promotion video

1 Jan 2009

100% Dope Free campaign promotion video / Dopingautoriteit (Anti-doping Authority Netherlands; NOC*NSF (Netherlands Olympic Committee * Netherlands Sports Confederation)

The 100% Dope Free campaign is an initiative set up to strengthen the anti-doping mentality of Dutch elite and talented athletes. The campaign is a combined initiative of the Dopingautoriteit and the NOC*NSF Athletes' Commission.

In the video three athlete ambassadors of the 100% Dope Free campaign give their reasoning on why it's important to sport clean. The athletes are:
- Epke Zonderland, elite gymnast
- Femke Dekker, female elite rower
- Richard Bottram, marathon athlete, Marathon365 organisator, Wheel of Energy365 organiser

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Type:
video

100% Dope Free Challenge - Case video [Dutch]

7 Apr 2015

100% Dope Free Challenge, casefilm NL / Dopingautoriteit (Anti-doping Authority Netherlands) ; Koninklijke Nederlandsche Wielren Unie (KNWU) Dutch Cycling Federation ; NOC*NSF - Netherlands Olympic Committee * Netherlands Sports Confederation).

This case video shows briefly the 100% Dope Free Challenge and the results.

The 100% Dope Free Challenge is an online game in which (former) elite cyclists Thorwald Venema, Rudi Kemna, Mike Teunissen, Kirsten Wild and Thijs Zonneveld discus their personal dilemmas about elite sports, doping and performance.

The 100% Dope Free Challenge is developed by the Dutch Cycling Federation, Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands and NOC*NSF.

De casefilm laat zien wat de 100% Dope Free Challenge inhoudt en wat de resultaten zijn.

In de 100% Challenge bespreken Thorwald Venema, Rudi Kemna, Mike Teunissen, Kirsten Wild en Thijs Zonneveld hun persoonlijke dilemma's als het gaat over topsport, doping en presteren.

De 100% Dope Free Challenge is gespeeld in het voorjaar van 2015. De online game was onderdeel van het project 'Koersen op een schone sport' van de KNWU, Dopingautoriteit en NOC*NSF.

Koersen op een schone sport is mede mogelijk gemaakt door een projectsubsidie van het ministerie van VWS.

Voor meer informatie, zie:

http://www.knwu.nl/mededelingen/koersen-op-een-schone-sport-eindverantwoording

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Type:
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