Psychosocial factors facilitating use of cognitive enhancing drugs in education: a qualitative investigation of moral disengagement and associated processes

2 Jul 2919

Psychosocial factors facilitating use of cognitive enhancing drugs in education : a qualitative investigation of moral disengagement and associated processes / Andrew Robert Heyes, Ian David Boardley

  • Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 26 (2019) 4, p. 329-338
  • DOI:10.1080/09687637.2019.1586831
  • Special Issue: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement


Abstract

Illicit use of prescription drugs (e.g. modafinil) to enhance academic performance – termed cognitive enhancement (CE) – is a legal, health, and ethical issue. Guided by Bandura’s social cognitive theory of moral thought and action, this study investigated whether student users of CE evidenced specific psychosocial mechanisms (i.e. mechanisms of moral disengagement) when explaining their reasons for CE. Following ethical approval from the lead author’s institution, in-depth-semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine students with experience of CE. Data were content analysed deductively, using definitions for the eight mechanisms of moral disengagement; six of the eight mechanisms were identified through data analysis: diffusion of responsibility (DR), advantageous comparison (AC), distortion of consequences (DCs), displacement of responsibility, moral justification, and euphemistic labelling. In addition, inductive data analysis identified three further themes; self-medication, family and friends, and institutional position. Overall, the study findings suggest students may morally disengage to justify and rationalise use of CE to minimise negative emotional responses (e.g. guilt) that may be expected to result given the potential legal-, health-, and ethics-based deterrents to CE.

Novel evidence on the effect of tramadol on self-paced high-intensity cycling

1 Jun 2022

Novel evidence on the effect of tramadol on self-paced high-intensity cycling / Thomas Zandonai, Darías Holgado, Luis F. Ciria, James Hopker, Mikel Zabala, Tristán Bekinschtein, Daniel Sanabria

  • Journal of Sports Sciences 39 (2021) 13 (July), p. 1452-1460
  • PMID: 33491582
  • DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2021.1877440


Abstract

The use of tramadol is a controversial topic in cycling. In order to provide novel evidence on this issue, we tested 29 participants in a pre-loaded cycling time trial (TT; a 20-min TT preceded by 40-min of constant work-rate at 60% of the VO2max) after ingesting 100 mg of tramadol (vs placebo and paracetamol (1.5 g)). Participants performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) at rest and a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) during the 60 min of exercise. Oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) activity was measured throughout the exercise. The results showed higher mean power output during the 20-min TT in the tramadol vs. paracetamol condition, but no reliable difference was reported between tramadol and placebo (nor paracetamol vs. placebo). Tramadol resulted in faster responses in the PVT and higher heart rate during exercise. The main effect of substance was reliable in the SART during the 40-min constant workload (no during the 20-min TT), with slower reaction time, but better accuracy for tramadol and paracetamol than for placebo. This study supports the increased behavioural and neural efficiency at rest for tramadol but not the proposed ergogenic or cognitive (harmful) effect of tramadol (vs. placebo) during self-paced high-intensity cycling.

Anabolic androgenic steroid use population size estimation: a first stage study utilising a Delphi exercise

16 May 2022

The modes of administration of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users : are non-injecting people who use steroids overlooked? / Katinka van de Ven, Renee Zahnow, Jim McVeigh, Adam Winstock

  • Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 27 (2020) 2, p. 131-135
  • DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2019.1608910


Abstract

Introduction: There is increasing public health concern about the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Understanding of drug use patterns and practices is important if we are to develop appropriate risk-reduction interventions. Yet, much remains unclear about the modes of administration adopted by AAS users.

Methods: We used data from a sub-sample of participants from the Global Drug Survey 2015; males who reported using injectable or oral AAS in their lifetime (n = 1008).

Results: Amongst our sample, approximately one third (35.62%) reported using only injectable AAS during their lifetime while 35.84% reported using only oral, with less than one third (28.54%) using both.

Conclusion: These findings suggest there may be a sub-population of individuals who only use AAS orally. Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) are currently the primary point of health service engagement; forming the main healthcare environment for medical and harm reduction advice on steroids. Yet, NSP-based resources are unlikely to reach or be appropriate to those who do not inject AAS. While there is a general need for health services to be more accessible when it comes to AAS use, non-injectors are an overlooked group that require attention.

CCES 2022 CCES vs David Pointing

16 May 2022

In April 2022 the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the powerlifter David Pointing after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance GW501516. After a notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete indicated to admit the violation and end the process..

Hereafter CCES establishes that the Athlete had failed to dispute the asserted anti-doping rule violation within the set deadline. Accordingly the CCES finds that the Athlete has deemed the asserted violation, waived his right to a hearing and accepted all proposed consequences.

Therefore the CCES decides on 16 May 2022 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 4 April 2022.

CCES 2022 CCES vs Jessica Pietrzyk

13 May 2022

In April 2022 the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the powerlifter Jessica Pietrzyk after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Metandienone, Methylphenidate. After a notification a provisional suspension was ordered.

Hereafter CCES establishes that the Athlete had failed to dispute the asserted anti-doping rule violation within the set deadline. Accordingly the CCES finds that the Athlete has deemed the asserted violation, waived her right to a hearing and accepted all proposed consequences.

Therefore the CCES decides on 13 May 2022 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 4 April 2022.

World Athletics 2021 WA vs Getaye Fisseha Gelaw

12 May 2022

In February 2022 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics reported anti-doping rule violations against the Ethiopian Athlete Getaye Fisseha Gelaw after his samples - provided in September and October 2021 - tested positive for the prohibited substance Recombinant Erythropoietin (rhEPO). After notification a provisional suspension was ordered.

In his submissions the Athlete accepted the test results and denied the intentional use of the substance. He explained that due to his knee injury in September 2021 he had used painkillers as advised and injected by his colleagues. He asserted that he was unaware what kind of substance was injected and could not provide further details about the purchase of the substance and about his colleagues.

The AIU concludes that the Athlete had committed multiple anti-doping rule violations while he had admitted to being injected on three occasion and that aggravating circumstances had been established.

Hereafter the Athlete failed to respond to the communications of the AIU. Because the Athlete failed to respond to the charge within the set deadline the AIU deems that the Athlete has admitted the anti-doping rule violations, waived his right for a hearing and accepted the consequences thereupon.

Therefore the AIU decides on 12 May 2022 to impose a 6 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. 4 February 2022.

LAT-NADO Annual Report 2021 (Latvia)

10 May 2022

Anti-Doping Bureau of Latvia public report for the year 2021 / Anti-Doping Bureau of Latvia (LAT-NADO). - Riga : LAT-NADO, 2022


Minderjarigen en het antidopingbeleid – Deel 1

1 May 2022

Minderjarigen en het antidopingbeleid – deel 1 / H. Ram

  • Tijdschrift voor Sport & Recht (2021) 1, p. 79-87



Na een korte introductie wordt in dit artikel een overzicht gegeven van regelgeving in de Wereld Anti-Doping Code (WADC) die specifiek betrekking heeft op minderjarige sporters, en van specifieke regels die het verloop van dopingcontroles bij minderjarige sporters beheersen. Het merendeel van deze regels is van kracht geweest sinds de eerste versie van de WADC, maar een aantal regels is sindsdien gewijzigd of toegevoegd. Vervolgens wordt een aantal gegevens gepresenteerd die inzicht geven in de daadwerkelijke uitvoering van dopingcontroles bij minderjarigen. Het artikel wordt afgesloten met een bespreking van jurisprudentie inzake begeleidend personeel (zoals trainers, coaches en artsen) die vervolgd en veroordeeld zijn wegens het verstrekken of toedienen van doping aan minderjarige sporters. Tuchtcolleges leggen de maximale straf (levenslange uitsluiting) op als de ernst van de overtreding daar voldoende aanleiding toe geeft. In het tweede deel van dit artikel zal de jurisprudentie inzake door minderjarige sporters zelf begane dopingovertredingen besproken worden.

IPED in Recreational Sports

27 Apr 2022

IPED in Recreational Sports / Samuel Iff, Ingo Butzke, Michael Zitzmann, Roger Schneiter, Manuela Hunziker, Boris B. Quednow, Malte Christian Claussen

  • Praxis 111 (2022) 6 (April), p. e345-e349
  • PMID: 35473330
  • DOI: 10.1024/1661-8157/a003873


Abstract

IPED consumers seek medical advice when uncertain as to their use. Due to shame or fear of stigmatization IPED consumers are often reluctant to talk about their drug use; they fear prejudice and a lack of experience when caring for this specific patient group. In order to strengthen trust, a non-judgmental, non-stigmatizing and supportive attitude is essential. The interaction should primarily lead to an understanding of why AAS are being used, what the patient's concerns are, and why medical help is being sought, without judgment or condemnation of the behavior. If no motivation to abstain from drug use is found during the consultation, harm reduction should be sought and the consequences of use addressed. Regular talks and active harm reduction can increase the confidence in evidence-based treatment to achieve personal motivation to abstain under medical supervision.

Interdisciplinary and Psychiatric Treatment of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Users

27 Apr 2022

Interdisciplinary and Psychiatric Treatment of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Users / Ingo Butzke, Samuel Iff, Michael Zitzmann, Boris B. Quednow, Malte Christian Claussen

  • Praxis 111 (2022) 6 (April), p.e339-e344
  • PMID: 35473322
  • DOI: 10.1024/1661-8157/a003868


Abstract

The prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS; anabolic steroids) use in recreational sports is underestimated. Due to the influence of social media, an increase in AAS use in recreational sports and in the general population is to be expected. AAS use is associated with significant physical and mental health consequences, and the psychiatric consequences include the risk of developing addictive behaviour. The widespread stigmatization of AAS use also by professionals often undermines users' trust in physicians and drives them into the arms of so-called "gurus." The tightening of anti-doping practices in sports and an exclusively prohibitive stance have so far failed to convincingly curb the problem in recreational sports. Harm reduction strategies could help patients to get the help they need from primary care providers.

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