FIM 2016 FIM vs Anastasiy Nifontova - Settlement

13 Mar 2919

In November 2016 the International Motorcycling Federation (FIM) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Russian rider Anastasiy Nifontova after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Meldonium. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered.

The Athlete demonstrated with medical evidence that the violation was not intentional because she underwent treatment for her health problems and had used prescribed medication which she mentioned on the Doping Control Form.

FIM accepts that the violation was not intentional due to the prescribed medication for a legitimate medical condition but deems that there are no grounds for No Significant Fault or Negligence.

The parties in this case reached a settlement agreement and accordingly on 13 March 2019 a 2 year period of ineligibility was imposed on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 14 November 2016.

World Athletics 2019 WA vs Carina Horn

10 Sep 2021

In September 2019 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) for World Athletics has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the South African Athlete Carina Horn after her A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substances Ibutamoren and LGD-4033 (ligandrol).

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. Analysis of the Athlete's supplement Mutant Madness in the Bloemfontein Lab and again in the Lausanne Lab revealed the presence of LGD-4033 in both an unsealed and a sealed bottle of Mutant Madness. Analysis of other supplements in question in the Lausanne Lab showed the presence of Ibutamoren in a sealed bottle of Amplify Whey.

The Athlete argued that she had ingested two contaminated supplements, Mutant Madness and Amplify Whey, which were analysed by two different WADA-accredited laboratories and which

  • (i) detected LGD-4033 in the unsealed bottle of Mutant Madness with lot number #50381 used by the Athlete
  • (ii) detected LGD-4033 in a sealed bottle of Mutant Madness with the same lot number #50381 and
  • (iii) detected Ibutamoren in a sealed bottle of Amplify Whey which had been purchased form the same store that the Athlete had previously purchased the Amplify Whey that she used.

In support of her explanations the Athlete filed witness statements and an expert report about her use of the products Mutant Madness and Amplify Whey at the relevant time.

Finally in June 2021 the Athlete admitted the violation, denied the intentional use of the prohibited substances, waived her right for a hearing and accepted the sanction proposed by the AIU. She asserted that she had demonstrated how the substances had entered her system. 

Independent scientific advise for the AIU confirmed that the Athlete's explanations were consistent with the presence of the substances in the samples. As a result the AIU concludes that the Athlete's has established that the probable source of the LGD-4033 and Ibutamoren are the products Mutant Madness and Amplify Whey.

Therefore the AIU decides on 10 September 2021 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 13 September 2019.

iNADO Update #2021-09

6 Sep 2021

iNADO Update (2021) 09 (6 September)
Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO)



Contents:

iNADO Community

  • Two Athlete Focussed Updates from Drug Free Sport New Zealand
  • UKAD Renews Partnership with The Drug Control Centre to Test Athlete Samples
  • Eighth Session of the Conference of Parties to the International Conference against Doping in Sport scheduled for 26-28 October, 2021

Bulletin Board

  • Reminder: Clean Sport Education Repository Webinar
  • Reminder to apply for 2022 WADA Standing Committees

Athlete's Voice

  • "Challenges of Paralympic athletes are different, as should
    be their anti-doping education."

Science

  • Research Paper analyzes the Strengths and the Weaknesses of the 2021 WADA Code
  • The Number of Records broken in Summer Olympic Games is decreasing

Practical Development in Anti-Doping

  • iNADO's Survey about Substances of Abuse
  • New Practical Information on the Use of Natural Products and Supplements

Feature of the Month

  • TonTon visits iNADO

iNADO Partners & Sponsors

  • New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

CAS 2021_O_7977 World Athletics vs Shelby Houlihan

27 Aug 2021

CAS 2021/O/7977 World Athletics v. Shelby Houlihan

In January 2021 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) for World Athletics has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the American Athlete Shelby Houlihan after her A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone).

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. In May 2021 the case was referred to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) for a first instance hearing panel. Previously the Athlete's request to lift the imposed provisional suspension was rejected by the AIU as by CAS.

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and  argued that the 19-norandrosterone entered her body by eating a burrito from a food truck containing pork offal and that the burrito was the only possible source of the 19-norandrosterone in the Sample.

The Athlete disputed the test results and asserted, supported by an expert witness, that the analytical results of the Montreal Lab should haven been reported as an Atypical Finding. Further she argued that TD2021NA applies since this document was approved and published and because of the application of the principle of lex mitior.

The Panel establishes that the TD2021NA is applicable in this matter and a majority of the Panel finds that the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) was not properly reported pursuant to the ISL, neither that the anti-doping rule violation was not properly managed, asserted and notified pursuant to the ISRM.

Considering the evidence in the case the Panel:

  • finds it possible but unlikely that the Athlete’s burrito contained boar offal;
  • finds it possible but unlikely that the ingestion of boar offal would have resulted in the urinary concentration of 19-norandrosterone found in the Athlete’s A and B samples;
  • finds it possible but not probable that the ingestion of boar offal would have resulted in the Athlete’s reported urinary concentration of 19-NA or her carbon isotope ratio of -23‰;
  • finds that neither the hair analysis nor the polygraph results are sufficient for the Athlete to satisfy her burden of proving that the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional.

Finally the Panel concludes that the Athlete has not satisfied her burden of proof on the balance of probabilities that the anti-doping rule violation was unintentional, and that the violation must be deemed intentional.

Therefore the Court of Arbitration for Sport decides on 27 August 2021 that:

  1. The request for arbitration filed by World Athletics on 18 May 2021 against Shelby Houlihan is upheld.
  2. Shelby Houlihan is found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to Rule 2.1 and Rule 2.2 of the World Athletics Anti-Doping Rules.
  3. Shelby Houlihan is subject to a period of ineligibility of four (4) years starting on 14 January 2021.
  4. All competitive results obtained by Shelby Houlihan from 15 December 2020 through to 14 January 2021 are disqualified, including forfeiture of any titles, awards, medals, points and prize and appearance money obtained during this period.
  5. (…).
  6. (…).
  7. All other motions or requests for relief are dismissed.
  8. The present decision is confidential, unless the President of the CAS Ordinary Arbitration Division decides that it should be made public.

Controlled Administration of Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone in Humans: Urinary Excretion and Long-Term Detection of Metabolites for Anti-Doping Purpose

19 Aug 2021

Controlled Administration of Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone in Humans: Urinary Excretion and Long-Term Detection of Metabolites for Anti-Doping Purpose / Steffen Loke, Xavier de la Torre, Michele Iannone, Giuseppe La Piana, Nils Schlörer, Francesco Botrè, Matthias Bureik, Maria Kristina Parr. - (The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2021) 19 August; 105978)

  • PMID: 34418529
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105978


Abstract

Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (DHCMT) is an anabolic-androgenic steroid that was developed by Jenapharm in the 1960s and was marketed as Oral Turinabol®. It is prohibited in sports at all times; nevertheless, there are several findings by anti-doping laboratories every year. New long-term metabolites have been proposed in 2011/12, which resulted in adverse analytical findings in retests of the Olympic games of 2008 and 2012. However, no controlled administration trial monitoring these long-term metabolites was reported until now. In this study, DHCMT (5 mg, p.o.) was administered to five healthy male volunteers and their urine samples were collected for a total of 60 days. The unconjugated and the glucuronidated fraction were analyzed separately by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The formation of the described long-term metabolites was verified, and their excretion monitored in detail. Due to interindividual differences there were several varieties in the excretion profiles among the volunteers. The metabolite M3, which has a fully reduced A-ring and modified D-ring structure, was identified by comparison with reference material as 4α-chloro-17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-nor-5α-androstan-13-en-3α-ol. It was found to be suitable as long-term marker for the intake of DHCMT in four of the volunteers. In one of the volunteers, it was detectable for 45 days after single oral dose administration. However, in two of the volunteers M5 (already published as long-term metabolite in the 1990s) showed longer detection windows. In one volunteer M3 was undetectable but another metabolite, M2, was found as the longest detectable metabolite. The last sample clearly identified as positive was collected between 9.9 and 44.9 days. Furthermore, the metabolite epiM4 (partially reduced A-ring and a modified D-ring structure which is epimerized in position 17 compared to M3) was identified in the urine of all volunteers with the help of chemically synthesized reference as 4-chloro-17α-hydroxymethyl-17β-methyl-18-nor-androsta-4,13-dien-3β-ol. It may serve as additional confirmatory metabolite. It is highly recommended to screen for all known metabolites in both fractions, glucuronidated and unconjugated, to improve identification of cheating athletes. This study also offers some deeper insights into the metabolism of DHCMT and of 17α-methyl steroids in general.

World Athletics 2021 WA vs Yousef Karam

18 Aug 2021

In March 2021 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics has reported an an anti-doping rule violation against the Kuwaiti Athlete Yousef Karam after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Ibutamoren.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by AIU. 

Therefore the AIU decides on 18 August 2021 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 30 March 2021.

World Athletics 2021 WA vs Racheal Mutgaa

17 Aug 2021

In August 2021 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics has reported an an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Racheal Mutgaa after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substances 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (androsterone), 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol and Testosterone.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived her right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by AIU. 

Therefore the AIU decides on 17 August 2021 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 3 August 2021.

Pitch-side Acute Severe Pain Management Decisions in European Elite football

16 Aug 2021

Pitch-side Acute Severe Pain Management Decisions in European Elite football / Maeve Claire Doheny, Gerard Bury. - (International Journal of Sports Medicine (2021) 9 (16 August))

  • PMID: 34399429
  • DOI: 10.1055/a-1588-7931


Abstract

This is the first study on acute severe pain management involving sport and exercise medicine Doctors who are leaders in football medicine in their respective countries. An online survey was designed describing the management of acute severe pain in this expert cohort. The survey captured participant sex, age, years working in sports medicine, core specialty and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Finally, three clinical vignettes exploring the management of acute pain were presented. Forty-four senior team doctors across 55 European countries completed the survey. There were no consistent guidelines proposed, with 33 (75%) participants indicating they did not use any. Methoxyflurane was proposed by 14 (32%) and 13 (30%) participants for female anterior cruciate ligament rupture and male ankle fracture, respectively. Strong opioids were not used in 17 (39%) and 6 (14%) participants regarding female cruciate injuries and male fractures, respectively. Despite 75% of participants having paediatric life support training, eight (18%) participants expressed uncertainty administering medications in this population, and 15 (34%) would avoid using strong opioids altogether. There is a tendency to undertreat pain and avoid strong opioids for reasons including lack of monitoring equipment, anti-doping concerns and lack of comfort treating paediatric patients with opioids.

Proof of Gene Doping in a Mouse Model with a Human Erythropoietin Gene Transferred Using an Adenoviral Vector

16 Aug 2021

Proof of Gene Doping in a Mouse Model with a Human Erythropoietin Gene Transferred Using an Adenoviral Vector / Takehito Sugasawa, Takuro Nakano, Shin-Ichiro Fujita, Yuki Matsumoto, Genki Ishihara, Kai Aoki, Koki Yanazawa, Seiko Ono, Shinsuke Tamai, Lev Manevich, Haruna Ueda, Noriyo Ishibashi, Kenshirou Tamai, Yasuharu Kanki, Yasuko Yoshida, Koichi Watanabe, Tohru Takemasa, Yasushi Kawakami, Kazuhiro Takekoshi. - (Genes 12 (2021) 8 (16 August); 1249)

  • PMID: 34440425
  • PMCID: PMC8392868
  • DOI: 10.3390/genes12081249


Abstract

Despite the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) ban on gene doping in the context of advancements in gene therapy, the risk of EPO gene-based doping among athletes is still present. To address this and similar risks, gene-doping tests are being developed in doping control laboratories worldwide. In this regard, the present study was performed with two objectives: to develop a robust gene-doping mouse model with the human EPO gene (hEPO) transferred using recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) as a vector and to develop a detection method to identify gene doping by using this model. The rAdV including the hEPO gene was injected intravenously to transfer the gene to the liver. After injection, the mice showed significantly increased whole-blood red blood cell counts and increased expression of hematopoietic marker genes in the spleen, indicating successful development of the gene-doping model. Next, direct and potentially indirect proof of gene doping were evaluated in whole-blood DNA and RNA by using a quantitative PCR assay and RNA sequencing. Proof of doping could be detected in DNA and RNA samples from one drop of whole blood for approximately a month; furthermore, the overall RNA expression profiles showed significant changes, allowing advanced detection of hEPO gene doping.

A fast screening method for the detection of CERA in dried blood spots

11 Aug 2021

A fast screening method for the detection of CERA in dried blood spots / Angela Rocca, Laurent Martin, Tiia Kuuranne, Magnus Ericsson, Alexandre Marchand, Nicolas Leuenberger. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2021) 11 August); p. 1-6)

  • PMID: 34380180
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3142


Abstract

Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) is a third-generation erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that was developed for the treatment of anemia. However, misuse of CERA for doping in endurance sports has been reported. Previous studies have shown blood as the matrix of choice for the detection of CERA, due to its high molecular weight. The use of dried blood spots (DBSs) for anti-doping purposes constitutes a complementary approach to the standard urine and venous blood matrices and could facilitate sample collection and increase the number of blood samples available for analysis due to reduced costs of sample collection and transport. Here, we investigated whether CERA could be indirectly detected in extracts of single DBSs using an erythropoietin-specific immunoassay that is capable of providing results within approximately 2 h. Reconstituted DBS samples were prepared from mixtures of red blood cell pellets and serum samples. The samples were collected in a previous clinical study in which six healthy volunteers were injected with a single, 200 μg dose of CERA. Using a commercially available ELISA kit, CERA was detected in the DBSs with a detection window of up to 20 days post-injection. Furthermore, in order to demonstrate the fitness-for-purpose, three authentic doping control serum samples, which were identified as containing CERA, were analyzed by the presented methodological approach on DBS. The testing procedure described here could be used as a fast and cost-effective method for the detection of CERA abuse in sport.

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