Psychosocial factors facilitating use of cognitive enhancing drugs in education: a qualitative investigation of moral disengagement and associated processes

2 Jul 2919

Psychosocial factors facilitating use of cognitive enhancing drugs in education : a qualitative investigation of moral disengagement and associated processes / Andrew Robert Heyes, Ian David Boardley

  • Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 26 (2019) 4, p. 329-338
  • DOI:10.1080/09687637.2019.1586831
  • Special Issue: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement


Abstract

Illicit use of prescription drugs (e.g. modafinil) to enhance academic performance – termed cognitive enhancement (CE) – is a legal, health, and ethical issue. Guided by Bandura’s social cognitive theory of moral thought and action, this study investigated whether student users of CE evidenced specific psychosocial mechanisms (i.e. mechanisms of moral disengagement) when explaining their reasons for CE. Following ethical approval from the lead author’s institution, in-depth-semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine students with experience of CE. Data were content analysed deductively, using definitions for the eight mechanisms of moral disengagement; six of the eight mechanisms were identified through data analysis: diffusion of responsibility (DR), advantageous comparison (AC), distortion of consequences (DCs), displacement of responsibility, moral justification, and euphemistic labelling. In addition, inductive data analysis identified three further themes; self-medication, family and friends, and institutional position. Overall, the study findings suggest students may morally disengage to justify and rationalise use of CE to minimise negative emotional responses (e.g. guilt) that may be expected to result given the potential legal-, health-, and ethics-based deterrents to CE.

World Athletics 2023 WA vs Ayub Kiptum

19 Jan 2024

In December 2023 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU), on behalf of World Athletics, reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Ayub Kiptum after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Testosterone.

Following notification the Athlete initially failed to respond to the AIU communication. Ultimately in January 2024 the Athlete timely admitted the violation, waived his right for a hearing and accepted the sanction proposed by the AIU.

The AIU deems that the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional. Because he had signed and submitted the Admission of Anti-Doping Rule Violations and Acceptance of Consequences Form he received a 1 year reduction from the AIU.

Therefore the AIU decides on 19 January 2024 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 22 December 2023.

World Athletics 2023 WA vs Hosea Kimeli Kisorio

18 Jan 2024

In December 2023 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU), on behalf of World Athletics, reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Hosea Kimeli Kisorio after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Erythropoietin (EPO).

Following notification the Athlete initially failed to respond to the communications of the AIU. Ultimately in January 2024 the Athlete timely admitted the violation, waived his right for a hearing and accepted the sanction proposed by the AIU.

The AIU deems that the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional. Because he had signed and submitted the Admission of Anti-Doping Rule Violations and Acceptance of Consequences Form he received a 1 year reduction from the AIU.

Therefore the AIU decides on 18 January 2024 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 1 December 2023.

AAA 2023 No. 012300029927 USADA vs Andre Luiz Novaes Porfirio

4 Jan 2024

In March 2023 the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) reported multiple anti-doping rule violations against the Ju-Jitsu Athlete Andre Luiz Novaes Porfirio:

  • for the use of the prohibited substance Testosterone and evasion of sample collection on 11 December 2022; and
  • for his evasion of sample collection on 20 December 2022 and the presence of Testosterone in his A and B samples.

Following notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the AAA Commercial Arbitration Tribunal.

Initially the Athlete admitted the anti-doping rule violations. Yet, at the hearing he retracted his admissions and disputed all the charges reported against him.

Doping Control Officers (DCOs) reported that the Athlete was selected for sample collection on 11 December 2022. However at the event USADA's officials and sports personnel were unable to locate the Athlete.

Thereupon on 20 December 2022 the DCOs were unsuccesful in collecting a sample at 7:00 am. Ultimately the DCOs collected a sample at 2:00 pm after the Athlete was initially unresponsive.

During proceedings the Athlete at first stated that he had left the event early on 11 December because he to catch his flight back home. Later he admitted that he had purchased and used Testosterone.

The Athlete acknowledged that he was warned that he was selected to be tested by USADA at the event. Because he had used Tesosterone he left the event to avoid being tested.

The Sole Arbitrator finds that the presence of a prohibited substance Testosterone had been established in the Athlete's samples and accordingly that he had committed an anti-doping rule violation. He also had admitted the use of Testosterone.

In view of the testimonies of the USADA's officials the Sole Arbitrator determines that the Athlete evaded sample collection on 11 December 2022 and delayed sample collection on 20 December 2022. As a result he committed 2 anti-doping rule violations for evading doping control.

Therefore the AAA Arbitration Tribunal decides on 4 January 2024 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 21 March 2023.

World Athletics 2023 WA vs Maurine Chepkemoi

21 Dec 2023

In December 2023 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU), on behalf of World Athletics, reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Maurine Chepkemoi after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Erythropoietin (EPO).

Following notification the Athlete timely admitted the violation, waived her right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the AIU.

Because she had signed and submitted the Admission of Anti-Doping Rule Violations and Acceptance of Consequences Form she received a 1 year reduction from the AIU.

Therefore the AIU decides on 21 December 2023 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 4 December 2023.

ST 2023_11 DFSNZ vs Evaan Reihana

20 Dec 2023

In November 2023 Drug Free Sport New Zealand (DFSNZ) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the rugby player Evaan Reihana after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Cocaine.

Following notification the Athlete admitted the violation, denied the intentional use of the substance and accepted the sanction proposed by DFSNZ. DFSNZ accepted that the violation was not intentional and that the use of Cocaine occurred out-of-competition.

The Athlete acknowledged that he had used the substance out-of-competition the day before the competition to cope with a family crisis.

The Tribunal assessed the joint memorandum of counsel and agrees that the Athlete's violation was not intentional and occurred out-of-competition in a context unrelated to sport performance. The Tribunal further determines that there is no need to order a Provisional Suspension and deems that there are no grounds to redact the name of the recreational Athlete from this decision.

Therefore the Tribunal decides on 20 December 2023 to impose a 3 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the decision.

World Athletics 2023 WA vs Thomas Kibet Kutere

19 Dec 2023

In November 2023 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU), on behalf of World Athletics, reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Thomas Kibet Kutere after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone).

Following notification the Athlete timely admitted the violation, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the AIU. He stated that he had used painkillers for his injury and that he was unaware that they contained a prohibited substance.

The AIU deems that the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional. Because he had signed and submitted the Admission of Anti-Doping Rule Violations and Acceptance of Consequences Form he received a 1 year reduction from the AIU.

Therefore the AIU decides on 19 December 2023 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 3 November 2023.

ADAPI 2023_12 Radha vs INADA - Appeal

18 Dec 2023

On 16 Januari 2023 the Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel of India (ADDPI) decided to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete Radha after she tested positive for the prohibited substance Erythropoietin (EPO).

Hereafter the Athlete appealed the ADDPI decision with the Anti-Doping Appeal Panel of India (ADAPI). The Athlete requested the Appeal Panel to set aside the Appealed Decision and to impose a reduced sanction.

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and claimed that she acted with No Significant Fault or Negligence. She explained with medical records that she had used prescribe medications as treatment for her diagnosed condition.

Further the Athlete asserted that she was hampered in her defence due problems with her original e-mail account. As a result she was unaware of the hearing, nor notified about the decision rendered by the ADDPI.

The India National Anti-Doping Agency (INADA) contended that a prohibited substance had been established in the Athlete's sample and that the Athlete had no valid TUE. Furthermore her medical treatment could not explain the presence of EPO in her sample.

Also INADA contended that the Athlete had admitted the violation and had acted negligently with her medication. Moreover there was sufficient e-mail evidence that showed that the Athlete was aware of the proceedings.

The Appeal Panel assessed the evidence in this case and determines that:

  • The presence of a prohibited substance had been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly she had committed an anti-doping rule violation.
  • The Athlete's medical reports and prescribed medication could not explain the use en presence of EPO.
  • The Athlete failed to demonstrate the source of EPO.
  • E-mail correspondence showed that the Athlete was aware of the proceedings and that she didn't care.

Therefore the ADAPI Panel decides on 18 December 2023 to uphold the Appealed Decision and the imposed 4 year period of ineligibility.

ADAK 2023 ADAK vs Betty Chelangat

14 Dec 2023

In August 2023 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) reported and anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Betty Chelangat after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Methasterone.

Following notification the Athlete timely admitted the violation, waived her right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by ADAK.

ADAK deems that the Athlete's violation was intentional and determines that she shall receive a 1 year reduction for her timely admission of the anti-doping rule violation.

Therefore ADAK decides on 14 December 2023 to impose a 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 12 September 2023.

World Athletics 2023 WA vs Samir Jouaher

14 Dec 2023

The Moroccan Athlete Fouad Idbafdil participated in marathons in Marocco in May 2022, the United Arab Emirates in November 2022 and Saudi Arabia in February 2023 where he provided his samples.

Hereafter in March 2023 the Moroccan Anti-Doping Agency (AMAD) and in April 2023 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) reported multiple anti-doping rule violations against the Athlete after his samples tested positive for the prohibited substances Erythropoietin (EPO) and Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA).

Following notification by AMAD in March 2023 a provisional suspension was ordered. Initially the Athlete denied the intentional use of the substances and requested the AIU for a hearing. He stated that he previously had received medical treatments. However the AIU established that these treatments could not explain the positive test results.

Ultimately in December 2023 the Athlete admitted the violation, waived his right for a hearing and signed and submitted the Admission of Anti-Doping Rule Violations and Acceptance of Consequences Form.

The AIU finds that the Athlete's 3 anti-doping rule violations shall be considered together as one single first violation. Furthermore the AIU deems that there are aggravating circumstances present in this case because the Athlete had used 2 prohibited substances for months.

Therefore the AIU decides on 14 December 2023 to impose a 6 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 14 March 2023.

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