FIM 2016 FIM vs Anastasiy Nifontova - Settlement

13 Mar 2919

In November 2016 the International Motorcycling Federation (FIM) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Russian rider Anastasiy Nifontova after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Meldonium. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered.

The Athlete demonstrated with medical evidence that the violation was not intentional because she underwent treatment for her health problems and had used prescribed medication which she mentioned on the Doping Control Form.

FIM accepts that the violation was not intentional due to the prescribed medication for a legitimate medical condition but deems that there are no grounds for No Significant Fault or Negligence.

The parties in this case reached a settlement agreement and accordingly on 13 March 2019 a 2 year period of ineligibility was imposed on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 14 November 2016.

Doping by athletes could become tougher to hide with new detection method

5 Apr 2021

Doping by athletes could become tougher to hide with new detection method. -  (American Chemical Society (2021) 5 April)

ACS Virtual PRESS SESSION 01: Monday, April. 5th at 10 a.m. EDT Welcome to ACS Spring 2021meeting! Please check out the archived video here:


As the world awaits the upcoming Olympic games, a new method for detecting doping compounds in urine samples could level the playing field for those trying to keep athletics clean. Today, scientists report an approach using ion mobility-mass spectrometry to help regulatory agencies detect existing dopants and future “designer” compounds. 

ACS Spring 2021 Press Conferences

10 video's

Welcome to ACS Spring 2021! The American Chemical Society (ACS) will be holding scientific press conferences here during the meeting, which runs from April 5 to 16. For press releases on these topics, please visit:

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iNADO Update #2021-04

1 Apr 2021

iNADO Update (2021) 04 (1 April)
Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO)


Message from our Chair

  • What did we learn in Anti-Doping from COVID-19?

iNADO Community

  • NADA Germany publishes Research into the Use of Analgesics in German Football Leagues
  • International Paralympic Committee launches Tokyo 2020 Anti-Doping Webpage
  • World Rowing Partners with the International Testing Agency
  • IADA Secretariat Handover

Bulletin Board

  • Enhanced Independence and a stricter Separation of Powers: iNADO´s Suggestions for WADA Governance
  • iNADO Annual General Assembly 2021
  • Bye Bye Facebook
  • Webinar Invitation by UK Anti-Doping
  • Governance in anti-doping: How to meet the challenges
  • Job Vacancy at AFLD

Athlete's Voice

  • "Be a Person first, an Athlete second"


  • Farewell to Jonas Hebchen


  • Helsinki Laboratory resumes its Anti-Doping Activities following Relocation

Practical Development in Anti-Doping

  • The Anti-Doping Knowledge Centre adds a dedicated Category for CAS Anti-Doping Division Awards

Feature of the Month

  • Be part of Play True Day 2021

iNADO Partners & Sponsors

  • New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

Can conditions of skeletal muscle loss be improved by combining exercise with anabolic-androgenic steroids? A systematic review and meta-analysis of testosterone-based interventions

30 Mar 2021

Can conditions of skeletal muscle loss be improved by combining exercise with anabolic-androgenic steroids? A systematic review and meta-analysis of testosterone-based interventions / Hugo Falqueto, Jorge L.R. Júnior, Mauro N.O. Silvério, Juliano C.H. Farias, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro H. Manfredi. - (Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders (2020) 30 March)

  • PMID: 33783694
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11154-021-09634-4


Sarcopenia, cachexia, and atrophy due to inactivity and disease states are characterized by a loss of skeletal muscle mass, often accompanied by reduced levels of anabolic hormones (e.g. testosterone). These conditions are associated with an increase in mortality, hospitalization and worsening in quality of life. Both physical exercise (EX) and anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) administration can improve the prognosis of patients as they increase physical functionality. However, there is a gap in the literature as to the impact of these therapies on the gains in strength and muscle mass and their implications for patient safety. Accordingly, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis to elucidate the effects of AAS and/or EX interventions on lean body mass (LBM) and muscle strength in conditions involving muscle loss. A systematic search for relevant clinical trials was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. Comparisons included AAS vs. Control, EX vs. Control, AAS vs. EX, AAS + EX vs. AAS and AAS + EX vs. EX. A total of 1114 individuals were analyzed. AAS increased LBM (effect size [ES]: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.68, P = 0.00) and muscle strength (ES: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.53, P = 0.01) when compared to a control group. EX promoted an increase in muscular strength (ES: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.25, P = 0.00), with no effect on LBM when compared to the control group (ES: 0.15; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.38, P = 0.17). AAS did not demonstrate statistically significant differences when compared to EX for LBM and muscle strength. The combination of EX + AAS promoted a greater increase in LBM and muscular strength when compared to AAS or EX in isolation. Qualitatively, AAS administration had relatively few side effects. Significant heterogeneity was found in some analyses, which may be explained by the use of different AAS types and EX protocols. Our findings suggest that AAS administration in cachectic and sarcopenic conditions may be a viable interventional strategy to enhance muscle function when exercise is not a possible approach. Moreover, combining AAS with exercise may enhance positive outcomes in this population.

Overview of Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods from the IOC Lists & WADA Prohibited Lists (1968-2021)

30 Mar 2021

Complete Overview of Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods from the IOC Lists (1968-2003) & WADA Prohibited Lists (2004- ) / ed. M.C. Tuk, Olivier de Hon. - Doping Authority Netherlands (Dopingautoriteit); Anti-Doping Knowledge Center (ADKC), 2021

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Nine prohibited stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements

23 Mar 2021

Nine prohibited stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: deterenol, phenpromethamine (Vonedrine), oxilofrine, octodrine, beta-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA) and higenamine /  Pieter A. Cohen, John C. Travis, Céline Vanhee, Dana Ohana, Bastiaan J. Venhuis. - (Clinical Toxicology (2021, 23 March; p. 1-8)

  • PMID: 33755516
  • DOI: 10.1080/15563650.2021.1894333


Background: Weight loss and sports supplements containing deterenol have been associated with serious adverse events including cardiac arrest.

Objective: To determine the presence and quantity of experimental stimulants in dietary supplements labeled as containing deterenol sold in the United States.

Methods: Dietary supplements available for sale in the US and labeled as containing deterenol or one of its synonyms (e.g., isopropylnorsynephrine and isopropyloctopamine) were purchased online. For each brand, one container or subsample was analyzed by NSF International (Ann Arbor, MI) and one container or subsample by the Netherland's National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands). When differences existed between the two containers or subsamples of the same brand, both products were reanalyzed by Sciensano (Brussels, Belgium). NSF International carried out qualitative and quantitative analyses using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. RIVM performed qualitative and quantitative analysis using UHPLC quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sciensano carried out qualitative analysis using UHPLC quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

Results: Seventeen brands of supplements were analyzed. Many brands included more than one prohibited stimulant in the same product: 4 brands (24%, 4/17) included 2 stimulants, 2 (12%, 2/17) combined 3 stimulants, and 2 (12%, 2/17) combined 4 stimulants. The range of quantities per recommended serving size of the 9 stimulants detected were 2.7 mg to 17 mg of deterenol; 1.3 mg to 20 mg of phenpromethamine (Vonedrine); 5.7 mg to 92 mg of beta-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA); 18 mg to 73 mg of octodrine; 18 mg to 55 mg of oxilofrine; 48 mg of higenamine; 17 mg of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA); 1.8 mg to 6.6 mg of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA); and 5.3 mg of 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA).

Conclusion: Weight loss and sports supplements listing deterenol as an ingredient contained 9 prohibited stimulants and 8 different mixtures of stimulants, with as many as 4 experimental stimulants per product. These cocktails of stimulants have never been tested in humans and their safety is unknown.

Undeclared Doping Substances are Highly Prevalent in Commercial Sports Nutrition Supplements

22 Mar 2021

Undeclared Doping Substances are Highly Prevalent in Commercial Sports Nutrition Supplements / Erik Duiven, Luc J.C. van Loon, Laila Spruijt, Willem Koert, Olivier M. de Hon. - 
(Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 20 (2021); p. 328-338)

  • DOI: 10.52082/jssm.2021.328


Sports nutrition supplements have previously been reported to contain undeclared doping substances. The use of such supplements can lead to general health risks and may give rise to unintentional doping violations in elite sports. To assess the prevalence of doping substances in a range of high-risk sports nutrition supplements available from Dutch web shops. A total of 66 sports nutrition supplements - identified as potentially high-risk products claiming to modulate hormone regulation, stimulate muscle mass gain, increase fat loss, and/or boost energy - were selected from 21 different brands and purchased from 17 web shops. All products were analyzed for doping substances by the UK life sciences testing company LGC, formerly known as the Laboratory of the Government Chemist, using an extended version of their ISO17025 accredited nutritional supplement screen. A total of 25 out of the 66 products (38%) contained undeclared doping substances, which included high levels of the stimulants oxilofrine, β-methylphenethylamine (BMPEA) and N,β-dimethylphenethylamine (NBDMPEA), the stimulant 4-methylhexan-2-amine (methylhexaneamine, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, DMAA), the anabolic steroids boldione (1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione) and 5-androstene-3β,17α-diol (17α-AED), the beta-2 agonist higenamine and the beta-blocker bisoprolol. Based upon the recommended dose and the potential variability of analyte concentration, the ingestion of some products identified within this study could pose a significant risk of unintentional doping violations. In addition to inadvertent doping risks, the prescribed use of 3 products (4.5%) could likely impose general health risks.

Anabolic-androgenic steroid administration increases self-reported aggression in healthy males: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

20 Mar 2021

Anabolic-androgenic steroid administration increases self-reported aggression in healthy males : a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies / Razieh Chegeni, Ståle Pallesen, Jim McVeigh, Dominic Sagoe. - (Psychopharmacology (2021, 20 March); p. 1-12)

  • PMID: 33745011
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00213-021-05818-7


Rationale: Aggression and irritability are notable psychiatric side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. However, no previous study has systematically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized effects reported by experimental studies on this topic.

Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of AAS administration on self-reported and observer-reported aggression.

Methods: Twelve RCTs comprising a total of 562 healthy males were identified through systematic searches of MEDLINE, PsycInfo, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library.

Results: After excluding one outlier, AAS administration was associated with an increase in self-reported aggression under a random-effects model, albeit small (Hedges' g = 0.171, 95% CI: 0.029-0.312, k = 11, p = .018), and when restricting the analysis to the effect of acute AAS administration on self-reported aggression under a fixed-effect model (g = 0.291, 95% CI: 0.014-0.524, p = .014). However, the above effects were neither replicated in the analysis of observer-reported aggression nor after restricting the analysis to the effects of the administration of higher (over 500 mg) and long-term (3 days to 14 weeks) doses.

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis provides evidence of an increase, although small, in self-reported aggression in healthy males following AAS administration in RCTs. Ecologically rational RCTs are warranted to better explore the effect of AAS administration on aggression in humans.

A Cell-Free Bioassay for the Detection of Androgens

11 Mar 2021

A Cell-Free Bioassay for the Detection of Androgens / Elliot R. Cooper, Gillian Hughes, Alexia Kauff, Emma Sutherland, Zoe Ashley, Alison K. Heather. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2021) 11 March)

  • PMID: 33709622
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3024


Androgens remain abused performance-enhancing drugs in sports. Technologies based on mass spectrometry can detect all forms of androgens but fail if the androgen represents a novel structure. A bioassay detects androgens based on function rather than structure. To date, there has been limited adoption of cell-based in vitro bioassays as a screening tool for non-targeted androgen detection because they require expert personnel and specialized equipment to perform. We now describe the development of a cell-free version of an androgen in vitro bioassay. Stage 1 involved in vitro transcription/translation reactions (IVTT) using a DNA template encoding an enhancer/ARE regulatory region upstream of a minimal promoter that drives expression of a reporter protein. The assay detected testosterone across the concentration range of 106.7 to 0.0144 ng/mL (3.7X10-7 -5X10-11 M), with an EC50 of 6.63 ng/mL (23 nM). To reduce complexity, stages 2-4 of development included just in vitro transcription (IVT) reactions, whereby the output was an RNA molecule. Stage 2 involved directly labeling the RNA molecule with fluorophore-labeled nucleotide triphosphates, stage 3 involved reverse transcription-PCR of the RNA molecule and stage 4 utilized an RNA aptamer, Mango II, as its RNA output. The stage 4 product detected testosterone across the range of 106.7-0.0001 ng/mL (3.7X10-7 -5X10-13 M), with an EC50 of 0.04 ng/mL (0.155 nM). Further to this, we showed that the stage 4 product could detect other androgenic molecules. Relative to cell-based bioassays, the Stage 4 product is easy to perform and could be developed into a routine, high-throughput, non-targeted androgen screen.

WADA - Compliance Annual Report 2020

11 Mar 2021

Compliance Annual Report 2020 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2021

WADA has publishes its 2020 Code Compliance Annual Report (Report). This second yearly report of its kind is an important element of WADA’s commitment to transparency and of WADA’s Compliance Strategy that was endorsed by WADA’s Executive Committee in 2019.

One of WADA’s primary roles as the global regulatory body for anti-doping is to monitor effective implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code (Code) and its related International Standards (Standards) by over 350 Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs); such as, National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADOs), International Federations (IFs) and Major Event Organizations.

In particular, the purpose of the Report is to:

  • Clearly outline the achievements and challenges of WADA’s Compliance Monitoring Program in an integrated fashion, measuring objectives against key performance indicators through quantitative and qualitative analysis, including areas for improvement;
  • Detail the interpretation and implications of the findings, trends and lessons learned over time towards Code Signatory Organizations, enhancing their compliance maturity as defined in the Compliance Strategy; and
  • Identify opportunities for continual improvement that are the foundation for the following year’s Compliance Annual Plan. This cycle is repeated annually as WADA seeks to develop compliance maturity through continual improvement of its own compliance activities and the global anti-doping system.

Some of the key findings of the Report include the following:

  • Flexible compliance measures applied by WADA to recognize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Code Signatories, in particular the temporary freezing of deadlines and enforcement procedures in the compliance monitoring program, resulted in fewer corrective actions being implemented by Signatories.

  • The area of results management generated a significant number of non-conformities across WADA’s monitoring programs compared with previous years.
  • Due to the more complex nature of their anti-doping programs, NADOs generated more non-conformities than IFs and took longer to implement corrective actions.
  • Agencies and organizations such as the International Testing Agency (ITA) and the Canadian NADO, to which a number of IFs delegated some or all parts of their anti-doping program, contributed to significantly improve IF anti-doping program independence and compliance.
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