Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2017

25 Oct 2018

Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2017 / Polska Agencja Antydopigowa (POLADA). - Warszawa : POLADA, 2018

Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2016

15 Jan 2018

Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2016 / Komisja do Zwalczania Dopingu w Sporcie (KdZDwS). - Warszawa : KdZDwS, 2017

Anti-Doping Norway Annual Report 2021

26 Apr 2021

Årsrapport 2021 Stiftelsen Antidoping Norge / Antidoping Norge (ADNO). - Oslo : ADNO, 2022

Anti-Doping Norway Annual Report 2020

26 Apr 2021

Årsrapport 2020 Stiftelsen Antidoping Norge / Antidoping Norge (ADNO). - Oslo : ADNO, 2021

Anti-Doping Norway Annual Report 2019

4 May 2020

Årsrapport 2019 Stiftelsen Antidoping Norge / Antidoping Norge (ADNO). - Oslo : ADNO, 2020

Anti-Doping Norway Annual Report 2018

30 Apr 2019

Årsrapport 2018 Stiftelsen Antidoping Norge / Antidoping Norge (ADNO). - Oslo : ADNO, 2019

Anti-Doping Norway Annual Report 2017

16 May 2018

Årsrapport 2017 Stiftelsen Antidoping Norge / Antidoping Norge (ADNO). - Oslo : ADNO, 2018

Novel evidence on the effect of tramadol on self-paced high-intensity cycling

1 Jun 2022

Novel evidence on the effect of tramadol on self-paced high-intensity cycling / Thomas Zandonai, Darías Holgado, Luis F. Ciria, James Hopker, Mikel Zabala, Tristán Bekinschtein, Daniel Sanabria

  • Journal of Sports Sciences 39 (2021) 13 (July), p. 1452-1460
  • PMID: 33491582
  • DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2021.1877440


The use of tramadol is a controversial topic in cycling. In order to provide novel evidence on this issue, we tested 29 participants in a pre-loaded cycling time trial (TT; a 20-min TT preceded by 40-min of constant work-rate at 60% of the VO2max) after ingesting 100 mg of tramadol (vs placebo and paracetamol (1.5 g)). Participants performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) at rest and a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) during the 60 min of exercise. Oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) activity was measured throughout the exercise. The results showed higher mean power output during the 20-min TT in the tramadol vs. paracetamol condition, but no reliable difference was reported between tramadol and placebo (nor paracetamol vs. placebo). Tramadol resulted in faster responses in the PVT and higher heart rate during exercise. The main effect of substance was reliable in the SART during the 40-min constant workload (no during the 20-min TT), with slower reaction time, but better accuracy for tramadol and paracetamol than for placebo. This study supports the increased behavioural and neural efficiency at rest for tramadol but not the proposed ergogenic or cognitive (harmful) effect of tramadol (vs. placebo) during self-paced high-intensity cycling.

Testing the boundaries: Self-medicated testosterone replacement and why it is practised

18 Dec 2020

Testing the boundaries : Self-medicated testosterone replacement and why it is practised / Mair Underwood, Katinka van de Ven, Matthew Dunn

  • International Journal of Drug Policy 95 (2021) 103087 (September)
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.103087



Testosterone is used therapeutically in medical settings. Non-prescribed testosterone use is typically illegal, described as ‘enhancement’ or ‘doping’, and considered a problem. However, research has found that some non-prescribed testosterone use may be therapeutic (i.e. self-medication). Little is known about testosterone self-medication. It has been noted among individuals who use image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs), but never systematically explored.


This paper describes the findings of a 4-year ethnographic study in online forums and social media groups frequented by people who use IPEDs. It focusses on 31 men who used enhancement doses of testosterone, but who described some of their testosterone use as ‘testosterone replacement therapy’ (TRT). In particular, it focuses on the 26 (84%) of these individuals who self-medicated TRT. Data was analysed thematically (using NVivo) in order to answer the question: ‘how and why is testosterone self-medicated?’. Using Bacchi's (2016) problematization approach to policy analysis, this paper also asks, ‘what happens to the ‘problem’ of non-prescribed testosterone use if such use is therapeutic?’.


Self-medicated TRT was found to be very similar to TRT as practised in medical contexts. Self-medication was often practised because of an inability to access testosterone through health practitioners (who were either reluctant or unable to prescribe). However, some individuals were found to prefer self-medication because of price, ease of access, reliability of supply, and because health practitioners were perceived as lacking expertise regarding testosterone use.


By documenting the therapeutic use of testosterone outside of medical settings, this paper calls into question previous conceptualisations of all illicit testosterone use as ‘abuse’, and the utility of the repair/enhancement dichotomy as a foundation for discussions of drug use. It suggests that in some cases the problem may not be non-prescribed testosterone use per se, but policies that prevent access to medical treatment.

A proposal for theoretical and empirical extension of the sociology of anti-doping

29 Oct 2020

A proposal for theoretical and empirical extension of the sociology of anti-doping / Patrick Trabal, Ekain Zubizarreta

  • Performance Enhancement & Health 8 (2020) 2-3 (August), 100177
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2020.100177


The purpose of the paper is to highlight the interest of using diverse sociological approaches and models for studying anti-doping (developed outside the epistemic community of researchers working on doping) and to point out the sociological interest of the doping issue for social sciences.

First, we will present a model developed by pragmatic sociologists for describing social issues in society that could assist researchers in describing the complex reality of the anti-doping issue. The model proposes to examine the ways in which axiology, devices and realities are articulated in anti-doping related criticism and the existing circulation between the six social logics described in it. Its use could allow researchers to apprehend local and global transformations in the system and the articulations between these two levels. Second, we will resume the most relevant results of a research that analysed the prevention activity using an approach of work sociologists. A part of this research sought to identify the meaning that people working in prevention gave to their activity. The received answers were manifold; five ways of “doing prevention” were identified, to which institutions were committed differently. The described panorama showed a dispute where the debate as such was not tabled and nobody seemed able to definitively close the dispute, not even the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Finally, an ongoing research will be presented. It focuses on the procedures-based management implemented by WADA and aims to compare its development with the implementation of similar management systems by other institutions. The research could allow us identifying possible related risks, for example, the loss of the pleasure of working, the emergence of fear or the increasing work pressure. We hope the paper will encourage other social researchers to renew the usual theoretical approaches.

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