World Athletics Russia Tasforce Report to the Council Meeting - 2 December 2020

2 Dec 2020

Russia Taskforce Report to Council Meeting of 2 December 2020 / Rune Andersen. - Monaco : World Athletics, 2020


The chair of the Russian Taskforce Rune Andersen reported on 2 December 2020 that there has been progress on the part of the Russian Federation in developing a meaningful Reinstatement Plan to drive the cultural change required for Russia to return to full international membership of the sport.

Andersen said that a foundation had been laid in recent months for the new RusAF leadership, which was elected on Monday, to put an appropriate plan in place by the deadline of 1 March 2021.

“Well-qualified international experts have been appointed who will work on the ground with RusAF in Russia, helping it to draw up a detailed strategic and operational plan with clear objectives and timelines,” Andersen said.

“A new framework agreement has been put in place that sets out how the Taskforce and the international experts will help RusAF to finalise and implement that plan, and that commits RusAF to continuing to pay the costs incurred by World Athletics in the process. The international experts have already begun working with the senior RusAF management team, and have reported that that team has been very responsive and constructive in its approach.”

The two independent experts appointed by World Athletics to work with RusAF are Margarita Pakhnotskaya, the former deputy Director-General of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency RUSADA, and Vladas Stankevicius, a Russian-speaking change management professional, lawyer and ethics and compliance expert. Former World Anti-Doping Agency international expert Peter Nicholson will support the other two experts remotely.

Andersen confirmed that he had an “open and constructive” first discussion with the new RusAF President Piotr Ivanov yesterday and requested that Ivanov work closely with the international experts to move the plan forward.

“If he puts the necessary commitment and resources behind the project, and wins the support for that effort of RusAF’s key stakeholders in Moscow and in the regions, then the Taskforce and the international experts stand ready to help him achieve the reinstatement of RusAF’s membership of World Athletics and the re-introduction of its athletes to international competition,” Andersen said.

The Council approved revised terms of reference for the Taskforce to reflect these recent developments.

RusAF must meet the deadline of 1 March 2021 and continue to pay the costs associated with the reinstatement process or the Council decision from July this year – to propose that Congress expels RusAF from membership of World Athletics – will come into effect.

The Council will consider whether to allow Russian athletes to compete again as Authorised Neutral Athletes in international competitions (including allowing up to 10 ANAs to participate in World Athletics Series events and the Tokyo Olympic Games) at its next meeting, in March 2021, or earlier if the Taskforce so recommends, based on the progress made by RusAF to that date.

World Athletics Russia Tasforce Report to the Council Meeting - 30 July 2020

1 Mar 2021

Russia Taskforce Report to Council Meeting of 30 July 2020 / Rune Andersen. - Monaco : World Athletics, 2020



The World Athletics Council decided on 30 July 2020 to expel the Russian Federation (RusAF) from membership of World Athletics if it does not make the outstanding payments of a $US5 million fine and $US1.31 million in costs before 15 August.

The Council, meeting by teleconference due to the ongoing global Covid-19 pandemic, agreed to follow the recommendations of the Taskforce, delivered by chairperson Rune Andersen in his Russia Taskforce Report.

Addressing the Council, Andersen expressed his disappointment that the Taskforce had seen “very little in terms of changing the culture of Russian athletics” in the past five years.

He said the Taskforce had spent “an enormous amount of time and effort trying to help RusAF reform itself and Russian athletics, for the benefit of all clean Russian athletes” but the response from RusAF had been inadequate.

In light of a letter sent to World Athletics by the Russian Minister of Sport Oleg Matytsin today, which promises payment of the overdue amounts by August 15, the Taskforce’s recommendations were:

Expulsion Decision

  1. To recommend to Congress that it resolves to expel RusAf from membership of World Athletics, in accordance with Article 14.1 of the Constitution, on the basis that the matters that led Congress to suspend RusAF from membership pursuant to Article 13.7 have not been satisfactorily addressed.
  2. To recommend that a Special Congress meeting be convened as soon as possible to allow Congress to consider and vote on the proposal to expel RusAF. In the circumstances of the ongoing and worsening pandemic, that Special Congress meeting should if possible be held virtually, to avoid delay.
  3. That pending Congress’s decision, the “Neutral Athlete” mechanism will not be made available to Russian athletes.

This decision is suspended, but will come into effect immediately and automatically if any of the following conditions are not met:

  1. Payment in full of the two outstanding RusAF invoices to be received on or before close of business in Monaco on 15 August 2020.
  2. The RusAF Reinstatement Commission to provide the draft plan referenced in the third paragraph of Council’s decision of 12 March 2020 – of suitable scope and depth, with an implementation plan and progress indicators – to the Taskforce on or before 31 August 2020.
  3. Any changes required by the Taskforce to the draft plan to be incorporated to the Taskforce’s satisfaction on or before 30 September 2020.
  4. The Plan to be brought into effect and satisfactory progress achieved against the plan (as determined by the Taskforce, based on the input of the international experts appointed by World Athletics), as reported by the Taskforce to Council at each of its subsequent meetings.

In relation to Authorised Neutral Athletes (ANAs):

  1. Athletes may apply for ANA status for 2020 competitions in accordance with the process specified by the Doping Review Board.
  2. No ANA status will be granted to any athlete for 2020 competitions unless and until conditions (1) to (3)  above are met.
  3. If conditions (1) to (3) are met, then in accordance with Council’s March decision, (1) no more than ten athletes (in total, not perevent) will be granted ANA status for World Athletics Series events. (The ony such event scheduled for 2020 is the World Athletics Half Marathon Championships in Gdynia); (2) there is no cap on ANAs for other international competitions in 2020.
  4. Council’s March 2020 decision to allow up to 10 Authorised Neutral Athletics for World Athletics Series events and the Tokyo Olympics will be reviewed no earlier than December 2020, based on an assessment of the progress made by RusAF against the reinstatement plan.

Background Note: The Council decided in March to sanction RusAF’s admitted breaches of the Anti-Doping Rules during the Lysenko investigation with a $US10 million fine, with $5 million to be paid by 1 July 2020 and the other $5 million suspended. The Council also required RusAF to pay related costs by 1 July 2020.

World Athletics Russia Tasforce Report to the Council Meeting - 22 November 2019

22 Nov 2019

Russia Taskforce Report to Council Meeting of 22 November 2019 / Rune Andersen. - Monaco : World Athletics, 2019



RusAF reinstatement process suspended

The World Athletics Council announced that the Russian Athletics Federation (RusAF) reinstatement process has been suspended, pending the resolution of the recent charges brought by the Athletics Integrity Unit.

On Thursday 21 November 2019, the AIU charged RusAF with obstructing an investigation and provisionally suspended several senior federation officials for tampering and complicity.

The Taskforce, chaired by Rune Andersen, made the following recommendations that were approved by the Council:

  • Council immediately suspends the RusAF reinstatement process, pending resolution of the AIU’s charges.
  • Council mandates the members of the Taskforce and the Doping Review Board to review the ‘Authorised Neutral Athlete’ (ANA) mechanism that Council put in place in June 2016, and to make recommendations to Council as to whether that mechanism can and should continue to be used given the recent developments, and in what form. Any ANA applications received in the interim to be held in abeyance pending such review.
  • Council mandates the Taskforce to make recommendations to Council as to the sanctions that Council should impose on RusAF if it is determined that RusAF has breached its obligations under the anti-doping rules, and whether Congress should be asked to consider the expulsion of RusAF from membership of World Athletics.

Relevance of the selective oestrogen receptor modulators tamoxifen, toremifene and clomiphene in doping field: endogenous steroids urinary profile after multiple oral doses

30 Jun 2011

Relevance of the selective oestrogen receptor modulators tamoxifen, toremifene and clomiphene in doping field : endogenous steroids urinary profile after multiple oral doses / Monica Mazzarino, Maria Cristina Braganò, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Molaioni, Francesco Botrè. - (Steroids 76 (2011) 12 (November); p. 1400-1406)

  • PMID: 21745489
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2011.06.005


Abstract

The present study was performed to investigate the influence of the intake of selective oestrogen receptor modulators on the urinary endogenous steroids profile. For this purpose the circadian variability of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol, epitestosterone, 4-androstenedione, androsterone and etiocholanolone were measured on eight subjects (four males and four females) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemiluminescent immunometric assay techniques before and after oral administration of multiple doses of either tamoxifen (80 mg for 2 days) or toremifene (120 mg for 2 days) or clomiphene (100 mg for 2 days). The individual baseline variability of the steroids studied was set up by collecting the urine samples every 3 h, for 3 days prior to the treatment; whereas the evaluation of the effects of the oral administration of multiple doses of selective oestrogen receptor modulators on the steroid urinary profile was assessed by collecting urine samples every three hours for at least five days from the first administration.

The results of our measurements showed that, only in male subjects, the relative urinary concentrations of testosterone, epitestosterone and 4-androstenedione were significantly altered generally after the second day of drug administration. While no significant effects were recorded in both sexes on the luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol and 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol urinary levels and on testosterone/epitestosterone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol/5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol and androsterone/etiocholanolone ratios.

Update on nandrolone and norsteroids: how endogenous or xenobiotic are these substances?

20 Mar 2004

Update on nandrolone and norsteroids : how endogenous or xenobiotic are these substances? / V. Bricout, F. Wright. - (European Journal of Applied Physiology 92 (2004) 1-2 (June); p. 1-12)

  • PMID: 15042372
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00421-004-1051-3


Abstract

Norsteroids are xenobiotics with androgenic and anabolic properties known since as far back as the 1930s. In doping controls, the use of the banned xenobiotic norsteroids is detected in the competitor's urines by the measurement of norandrosterone (19-NA) and noretiocholanolone (19-NE), which are the main metabolites for nandrolone (NT) and most norsteroids with anabolic properties. In 1996, the IOC subcommission "Doping and Biochemistry of Sport" informed the Heads of the "IOC Accredited Laboratories" that the recommended cut-off limit for reporting an offence was to be 1-2 ng ml(-1) urine for either 19-NA or 19-NE. We will discuss how technical progress in gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry permitted a dramatic increase in sensitivity with a detection limit of 1 pg ml(-1) urine, or less, and an assay limit of 20-50 pg ml(-1) urine, for either 19-NA or 19-NE. As a paradox, norsteroids have been known for decades as not only xenobiotics but also obligatory endogenous intermediates in the biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens in all species, man included. It is this biochemical observation which fed the active scientific and medical controversy initiated in 1998 over the possibly endogenous production of nandrolone and metabolites well over the new IOC's recommended cut-off limit of 2 ng ml(-1) urine. Notwithstanding the particular technical difficulties attached, we will provide data and discuss the minute endogenous levels detected and measured in man either at rest, after performance or training and compare them to the relatively high levels reported in male athlete's doping controls today. We will also discuss data on the pharmacological effects of some contraceptive therapies containing norsteroids in women. In view of the well-documented noxious effects repeatedly observed after anabolic steroid misuse, the confirmation and implementation of technically proven procedures for reporting norsteroid abuse in sports seems an important enough goal to protect athlete's health against such abuses and justifies up dating the review of the patent scientific and medical experience and knowledge gained over the last 50 years on nandrolone and its minor production in man and woman.

Issues in detecting abuse of xenobiotic anabolic steroids and testosterone by analysis of athletes' urine

1 Jul 1997

Issues in detecting abuse of xenobiotic anabolic steroids and testosterone by analysis of athletes' urine / D.H. Catlin, C.K. Hatton, S.H. Starcevic. - (Clinical Chemistry 43 (1997) 7 (July); p. 1280-1288)

  • PMID: 9216475


Abstract

Over the last decade the number of laboratories accredited by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has grown to 25. Nearly half of the approximately 90,000 samples tested annually are collected on short notice-the most effective means to deter the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The major urinary metabolites of AAS have been characterized and are identified by their chromatographic retention times and full or partial mass spectra. The process of determining if an athlete has used testosterone (T) begins with finding a T to epitestosterone (E) ratio > 6 and continues with a review of the T/E-time profile. For the user who discontinues taking T, the T/E reverts to baseline (typically approximately 1.0). For the extremely rare athlete with a naturally increased T/E ratio, the T/E remains chronically increased. Short-acting formulations of T transiently increase T/E, and E administration lowers it. Among ancillary tests to help discriminate between naturally increased T/E values and those reflecting T use, the most promising is determination of the carbon isotope ratio.

Evaluation of testosterone/epitestosterone ratio influential factors as determined in doping analysis

1 Mar 2000

Evaluation of testosterone/epitestosterone ratio influential factors as determined in doping analysis / D.H. van de Kerkhof, D. de Boer, J.H. Thijssen, R.A. Maes. - (Journal of Analytical Toxicology 24 (2000) 2 (March); p. 102-115)

  • PMID: 10732948
  • DOI: 10.1093/jat/24.2.102


Abstract

The ratio of the concentration of testosterone glucuronide to the concentration of epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E ratio) as determined in urine is the most frequently used method to prove testosterone abuse by athletes. A T/E ratio higher than 6 has been considered as proof of abuse in the past; however, cases of naturally occurring higher T/E ratios have been described. Since the introduction of the T/E ratio in doping analysis, the parameters that may or may not influence the T/E ratio, possibly leading to false-positive results, have been debated. To achieve more insight on the influencing circumstances, an overview is given to obtain an objective view on the merits of the urinary T/E ratio. Relevant analytical aspects of the T/E ratio, potential parameters of endogenous and exogenous origins, as well as some alternative methods to determine testosterone abuse, such as the urinary testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, hair analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, are discussed.

Detection of new exemestane metabolites by liquid chromatography interfaced to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry

7 Sep 2011

Detection of new exemestane metabolites by liquid chromatography interfaced to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry / Gustavo de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Bruno Carius Garrido, Felipe Dias Leal, Monica Costa Padilha, Monica Mazzarino, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botre, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto. - (The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 127 (2011) 3-5 (November); p. 248-254)

  • PMID: 21924357
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2011.08.014


Abstract

Exemestane is an irreversible aromatase inhibitor used for anticancer therapy. Unfortunately, this drug is also misused in sports to avoid some adverse effects caused by steroids administration. For this reason exemestane has been included in World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list. Usually, doping control laboratories monitor prohibited substances through their metabolites, because parent compounds are readily metabolized. Thus metabolism studies of these substances are very important. Metabolism of exemestane in humans is not clearly reported and this drug is detected indirectly through analysis of its only known metabolite: 17β-hydroxyexemestane using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This drug is extensively metabolized to several unknown oxidized metabolites. For this purpose LC-MS/MS has been used to propose new urinary exemestane metabolites, mainly oxidized in C6-exomethylene and simultaneously reduced in 17-keto group. Urine samples from four volunteers obtained after administration of a 25mg dose of exemestane were analyzed separately by LC-MS/MS. Urine samples of each volunteer were hydrolyzed followed by liquid-liquid extraction and injected into a LC-MS/MS system. Three unreported metabolites were detected in all urine samples by LC-MS/MS. The postulated structures of the detected metabolites were based on molecular formulae composition obtained through high accuracy mass determination by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) (all mass errors below 2ppm), electrospray (ESI) product ion spectra and chromatographic behavior.

Metabolism of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione and detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in doping control

16 Dec 2008

Metabolism of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione and detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in doping control / Maria K. Parr, Gregor Fusshöller, Nils Schlörer, Georg Opfermann, Thomas Piper, Grigory Rodchenkov, Wilhelm Schänzer. - (Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 23 (2009) 2 (30 January); p. 207-218)

  • PMID: 19089863
  • DOI: 10.1002/rcm.3861


Abstract

The urinary metabolism of the irreversible aromatase inhibitor androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione was investigated. It is mainly excreted unchanged and as its 17beta-hydroxy analogue. For confirmation, 17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4,6-trien-3-one was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in addition to the parent compound. In addition, several reduced metabolites were detected in the post-administration urines, namely 17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one (boldenone), 17beta-hydroxy-5beta-androst-1-en-3-one (boldenone metabolite), 17beta-hydroxyandrosta-4,6-dien-3-one, and androsta-4,6-diene-3,17-dione. The identification was performed by comparison of the metabolites with reference material utilizing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the underivatized compounds and GC/MS and GC/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. Alterations in the steroid profile were also observed, most obviously in the androsterone/testosterone ratio. Even if not explicitly listed, androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione is classified as a prohibited substance in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to its aromatase-inhibiting properties. In 2006 three samples from human routine sports doping control tested positive for metabolites of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. The samples were initially found suspicious for the boldenone metabolite 17beta-hydroxy-5beta-androst-1-en-3-one. Since metabolites of androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione were also present in the urine samples, it is presumed that these findings were due to the administration of a product like 'Novedex Xtreme', which could be easily obtained from the sport supplement market.

Analytical possibilities for the detection of stanozolol and its metabolites

24 Sep 2002

Analytical possibilities for the detection of stanozolol and its metabolites / S. Poelmans, K. De Wasch, H.F. De Brabander, M. Van De Wiele, D. Courtheyn, L.A. van Ginkel, S.S. Sterk, Ph. Delahaut, M. Dubois, R. Schilt, M. Nielen, J. Vercammen, S. Impens, R. Stephany, T. Hamoir, G. Pottie, C. Van Poucke, C. Van Peteghem. - (Analytica Chimica Acta 473 (2002) 1-2 (25 November); p. 39-47)

  • DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00672-4


Abstract

In sports doping, as well in man as in horseracing, stanozolol (Stan) was abused and became the subject of metabolism research. Also in veterinary practice, stanozolol became an important misused anabolic steroid.

Like most other anabolic steroids, stanozolol has poor gas chromatographic behavior. It is difficult to detect in urine, because of low urinary excretion and renal clearance. This is due to the rapid metabolization, leading to low concentration levels of the parent compound found in urine. Therefore, most research studies have focused on the detection of its urinary metabolites.

For the identification of the metabolites, different methods of extraction and detection are described in the literature. These are reviewed in this article. Most authors use a hydrolysis to free the phase II metabolites. Extraction procedures vary from solid-phase extraction (SPE), liquid–liquid (L–L) extraction to immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). For the final detection, the use of gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS) can be compared with liquid chromatography (LC)–MSn. Different metabolites are identified depending on the administration of stanozolol in the animal experiment (oral or intramuscular). Analyses for these analytes in other matrices are also briefly discussed.

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