Residuos de fármacos anabolizantes en carnes destinadas al consumo humano

4 Mar 2011

Residuos de fármacos anabolizantes en carnes destinadas al consumo humano = Residues of anabolic drugs in meat intended for human consumption / Álvaro L. Fajardo-Zapata, Francy J. Méndez-Casallas, Luis H. Molina. - (Universitas Scientiarum 16 (2011) 1 (January/April); p. 77-91)



Resumen

La producción de carne para el consumo humano es uno de los renglones importantes dentro de la economía de un país, tiene una gran importancia socioeconómica ya que sirve como base para el desarrollo, generación de empleo y sostenibilidad. La demanda de proteína de origen animal es uno de los elementos más preciados y necesarios para mantener el adecuado desarrollo biológico de los seres humanos en crecimiento así como fuente de renovación de los tejidos. Este consumo ha aumentado porque las poblaciones y las migraciones hacia las ciudades crecen día tras día, lo cual genera que la oferta se torne insuficiente y se requiera acelerar, tecnificar y mejorar el proceso productivo de la carne. También se busca una disminución en los costos productivos por parte de los productores de este sector de la economía, lo que lleva a la utilización e incorporación de tecnología y de conocimientos de vanguardia con el fin de mejorar el rendimiento en la producción de carne; dentro de los nuevos conceptos se ha incorporado el conocimiento científico sobre crecimiento y desarrollo, trasladándolo al campo de la producción animal, lo que ha implicado el uso de hormonas y promotores del crecimiento (esteroides anabolizantes y otros), como fuentes para acelerar e incrementar la producción. Si bien es cierto, se ha logrado un incremento en la producción, los residuos de las sustancias usadas pueden quedar en la carne que se destina para el consumo humano y pueden generar alteraciones en el estado de salud de quienes la consumen.



Abstract

Residues of anabolic drugs in meat intended for human consumption. The production of meat for human consumption is one of the important items in the economy of a country. This activity has great socio economic importance as it serves as a basis for development, employment generation and sustainability of a country. The demand for animal protein is one of the most precious and necessary factors to maintain a proper biological development of human beings in active growth as well as being a source of growth and tissue regeneration. Consumption has increased because populations continue to grow and there is continuous migration to the cities, which makes the offer insufficient, and therefore it is necessary to accelerate, introduce technology and improve the meat production process. Industry also seeks a reduction in production costs by producers in this sector of the economy, leading to the use and incorporation of technology and cuttingedge knowledge to improve yield production of meat. Such knowledge comprises the scientific basis of the use of growth hormones and promoters (anabolic steroids and others) to accelerate and increase the production of meat. Although there has been an increase in production, residual substances can remain in the meat intended for human consumption which can lead to changes in the health of consumers.

Hormonen in importvlees. Een evaluatie van recente gegevens over gehalten aan van nature voorkomende hormonen

30 Jun 2005

Hormonen in importvlees : Een evaluatie van recente gegevens over gehalten aan van nature voorkomende hormonen / P.R. Kootstra, H.J. van Rossum, P.W. Zoontjes,  P.L.W.J. Schwillens, K.L. Wubs, H.A. Herbold, R.W. Stephany, S.S. Sterk en L.A. van Ginkel. - Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), 2004. - (RIVM Rapport 310302002/2004).



Samenvatting

Consumptie van vlees, geimporteerd uit Zuid-Amerika, met name Argentinie en Brazilie, leidt niet tot inname van lichaamsvreemde hormonen. Bovendien zijn er geen aanwijzingen voor inname van verhoogde hoeveelheden lichaamseigen hormonen. Onderzoek naar het illegaal gebruik van groeibevorderende stoffen vindt binnen de Europese Unie plaats in het kader van Nationale residu controleprogramma's, uitgevoerd in het kader van Europese regelgeving. Zulk onderzoek vindt plaats zowel gedurende de boerderijfase als ten tijde van de slacht. Veelal richt dit onderzoek zich op excreta zoals urine of mest, of op orgaanvlees. Bij import van buiten de Europese Unie is als regel uitsluitend het voor consumptie bedoelde spiervlees beschikbaar. Het systematisch onderzoek van dit materiaal heeft tot op heden slechts zeer beperkt plaatsgevonden waardoor gegevens over de blootstelling van de consument nauwelijks beschikbaar zijn. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van onderzoek van ca. 300 monsters rund- en varkensvlees op lichaamseigen en lichaamsvreemde hormonen. Geen van de lichaamsvreemde hormonen waarop onderzoek is verricht werd aangetroffen. In zes monsters varkensvlees werden nortestosteron en boldenon aangetroffen. De aanwezigheid van deze hormonen betekent dat ook vlees van beren (niet gecastreerde mannelijke varkens) wordt geexporteerd. In een monster rundvlees overschreed het gehalte aan 17beta-oestradiol de voorlopige grenswaarde van 0,1 microg/kg.



Abstract

Consumption of meat imported from South America, mainly Argentina and Brazil, does not result in the intake of exogenous hormones. In addition, there are no indications for the intake of elevated amounts of endogenous (natural) hormones. Testing for the illegal use of growth promoting compounds within the European Union is conducted within the framework of national residue control programmes, based on European legislation. Such testing takes place "on farm" and after slaughter. Most of the tests are conducted on excreta like urine and manure and on organ tissues. However, in case of import only the muscle tissue intended for consumption is available. Systematic testing of this material, however, has been very limited. Consequently limited information on the actual intake by consumers is available. This report describes the results of the analyses of approximately 300 samples of bovine and porcine meat for the presence of xenobiotic and endogenous hormones. None of the xenobiotic hormones analyzed for was detected in these analyses. In six samples of pork meat nortestosterone and boldenone were detected. The presence of these hormones indicates that boar meat was exported too. In one sample the level of 17beta-oestradiol exceeded the provisional reference value of 0.1 microg/kg.

Hormones in meat: different approaches in the EU and in the USA

12 Oct 2011

Hormones in meat: different approaches in the EU and in the USA / R.W. Stephany. - (Acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS) 109 (2001) S103 (July); p. S357-S364)

  • PMID: 11505585
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2001.tb05787.x

Abstract

The use of hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in farm animals can increase the production of veal and beef significantly up to 15%. However, in the different parts of the world the regulation regarding the use of such hormones differs sharply. In the European Union there exists a total ban on such use in contrast to the United States of American where the use of some hormones is authorized under strict conditions. An overview is given of the different opposing aspects and their consequences are discussed. It has to be concluded that in some EU Member States an extended black market exists. For the USA no experimental evidence is available for such a black market. In the EU the number of ascertained different illegal "hormones" ranges between about 35 and 55. In the USA the number of legal hormones in total is six. The levels of hormone residues found in beef originating from the USA are in the fast majority of cases below the Maximum Residue Limit as recommended by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee of Food Additives. No comparable experimental data are available for the EU. Finally other food commodities have to be taken into account to assess potential risks of the dietary intake of "hormones". Eggs, example given, contribute more to the dietary intake of estradiol than beef, whether the animal is legally treated with hormones or not.

Metabolism study of boldenone in human urine by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

18 Aug 2015

Metabolism study of boldenone in human urine by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry / Xinchen Wu, Feng Gao, Wenxin Zhang, Jian Ni. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 115 (2015) 10 November; p. 570-575)

  • PMID: 26319750
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2015.08.014


Abstract

Boldenone (BOLD), an anabolic steroid, is likely to be abused in livestock breeding and in sports. Although some of BOLD metabolites in human urine, such as 5β-adrost-1-en-17β-ol-3-one (BM1), have been detected, investigations on their excretion patterns for both genders are insufficient. Moreover, little research on 17α-BOLD glucuronide as a metabolite in human urine has been reported. The aim of this study is to make a contribution to the knowledge of 17β-BOLD metabolism in humans. Three male and three female volunteers were orally administrated with 30mg 17β-BOLD. Urine samples were collected and analyzed with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data proved that 17β-BOLD, BM1, and 17α-BOLD were excreted in urine in both free and glucuronic conjugated forms after administration of 17β-BOLD. For most subjects, the urinary concentrations of BM1 were higher than that of 17β-BOLD. 17α-BOLD was excreted in small amounts. 17α-BOLD, 17β-BOLD, and BM1 were present naturally in urine with low concentrations. Administration of 30mg 17β-BOLD could not influence the excretion profiles of urinary androsterone, etiocholanolone, and testosterone / epitestosterone ratio. There were no differences in BOLD metabolic patterns between man and woman.

Estudio de Residuos de Boldenona en Carne de Bovinos Faenados en El Camal Metropolitano de Quito

31 Mar 2020

Estudio de Residuos de Boldenona en Carne de Bovinos Faenados en El Camal Metropolitano de Quito / Elvis Morales-Pérez, Paulette Andrade-Beltrán, Paola Flores-Gutiérrez, Byrona Puga-Torres, Francisco De La Cueva-Jácome, Javier Vargas-Estrella. - (ECUADOR ES CALIDAD - Revista Científica Ecuador es Calidad Artículos Científicos 7 (2020) 1; p. 1-7)

  • DOI: 10.36331/revista.v7i1.96


Abstract

The needs of animal protein is a very important factor in the human biological development, therefore, they must meet important requirements to be considered safe and suitable for consumption, since in the animal production, various pharmacological substances are used as growth promoters and many times the established withdrawal times are not fulfilled so that these drugs are eliminated from edible tissues, causing serious alterations in the consumer, being more vulnerable infants, young children, pregnant women and elderly. The objectives of the study were directed to carry out a preliminary information gathering to determine if there is presence of boldenone in meat of cattle slaughtered in the Slaughterhouse Metropolitan of Quito, and relate the presence of it, depending on their age and origin. 72 meat samples were taken at random, from animals with good conformation, for 4 weeks; later they were analyzed by the ELISA screening technique, at the AGROCALIDAD Livestock Products Contaminants Laboratory. The presence of boldenone residues was determined in 100% of the samples analyzed, which alerts its possible use as a growth promoter in cattle from the Ecuadorian coast, reason why it should be confirmed by confirmatory techniques



Resumen

Las necesidades de proteína de origen animal es un factor muy importante en el desarrollo biológico de los seres humanos, por lo cual deben cumplir requisitos importantes para que sean considerados inocuos y aptos para su consumo, puesto que en la crianza y producción de los animales, se utilizan varias sustancias farmacológicas como promotores de crecimiento y muchas veces no se cumplen los tiempos de retiro establecidos para que se eliminen estos fármacos de los tejidos comestibles, causando serias alteraciones en el consumidor, siendo más vulnerables los lactantes, niños pequeños, mujeres embarazadas y ancianos. Los objetivos del estudio estuvieron direccionados a realizar un levantamiento preliminar de información para determinar si existe presencia de boldenona en carne de bovinos faenados en el Camal Metropolitano de Quito y relacionar la presencia de ésta, en función a su edad y procedencia. Se tomaron 72 muestras de carne al azar, de animales con buena conformación, por un lapso de 4 semanas; posteriormente se analizaron por la técnica de screening de ELISA, en el Laboratorio de Contaminantes de Productos Pecuarios de AGROCALIDAD. Se determinó la presencia de residuos de boldenona en el 100% de las muestras analizadas, lo cual alerta sobre su posible uso como promotor de crecimiento en bovinos procedentes del litoral ecuatoriano, por lo que se debería analizar mediante técnicas confirmatorias como HPLC-MS para, de ser el caso, tomar las acciones preventivas y correctivas por parte de la Autoridad Nacional Competente.

Maskeert furosemide dopinggebruik?

25 May 2021

Maskeert furosemide dopinggebruik? / David J. Brinkman, Jelle Tichelaar, Michiel A. van Agtmael. - (Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (2021) 25 mei)



Samenvatting:

Onlangs werd de keeper van AFC Ajax, André Onana, voor één jaar geschorst vanwege het gebruik van furosemide. Sporters kunnen dit medicijn gebruiken om prestatiebevorderende middelen te maskeren en om gewicht te verliezen. Hoe werkt furosemide, en is het een effectief dopingmiddel?

Furosemide staat op de dopinglijst van de Wereldantidopingagentschap (WADA), omdat het middel door sporters gebruikt kan worden om prestatiebevorderende middelen in de urine te verbloemen en om gewicht te verliezen. Hoe werkt deze plaspil, en is het een effectief dopingmiddel? Op basis van de farmacologische eigenschappen van furosemide, de beschikbare literatuur en de uiterst gevoelige detectiemethoden concluderen wij dat het maskerende effect van furosemide beperkt is. Furosemide is wel relevant voor sporten met gewichtsklassen, zoals boksen en judo.

De Anabolenpoli: Ervaringen en praktische handvatten

31 May 2021

De Anabolenpoli : Ervaringen en praktische handvatten / W. (Pim) de Ronde, Lisa Jacobs en Diederik L. Smit. - (Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (2021) 31 May)



Samenvatting

In Nederland gebruiken naar schatting 20.000 mannen anabole steroïden. De confrontatie met een patiënt die anabole steroïden gebruikt kan emoties en vragen oproepen. Veel artsen voelen daarbij weerstand en afwijzing. Ons advies is om gebruikers van anabole steroïden niet op voorhand te veroordelen, maar om het gesprek aan te gaan over de drijfveren en de inschatting van de risico’s. Daarbij moet u rekening houden met uw eigen aannames en oordelen over dit onderwerp. Mogelijke onderliggende psychopathologische stoornissen moeten worden onderkend en behandeld, mits de gebruiker daarvoor openstaat. Wij adviseren om geen anabole steroïden voor te schrijven zonder medische indicatie. Ook zien wij geen reden om routinematig controles van de gezondheid uit te voeren tijdens het gebruik van anabole steroïden zolang niet vaststaat dat hiermee gezondheidsschade kan worden voorkomen. Als de gebruiker zich meldt met gezondheidsproblemen moet dat als ingang gebruikt worden om het gesprek te openen of heropenen over de voor- en nadelen van het gebruik. Schadelijke effecten van het gebruik van anabole steroïden moeten behandeld worden volgens de geldende richtlijnen.

2,4-Dinitrophenol: 'diet' drug death following major trauma

18 May 2021

2,4-Dinitrophenol: 'diet' drug death following major trauma / N. Freeman, D. Moir, E. Lowis, E. Tam. - (Anaesthesia Reports 9 (2021) 1 (May); p. 106-109)

  • PMID: 34027412
  • PMCID: PMC8131886 (available on 2022-05-18)
  • DOI: 10.1002/anr3.12121


Abstract

There has been a resurgence in the illicit use of 2,4-dinitrophenol by people wishing to achieve rapid weight loss. Despite its availability, the drug is banned for human consumption as it is toxic and can have fatal consequences. We present the case of a 23-year-old man who regularly consumed 2,4-dinitrophenol to generate fat loss without apparent ill effect. He was involved in a high-speed road traffic collision and sustained limb-threatening injuries. The combination of emergency surgery, trauma and 2,4-dinitrophenol consumption culminated in deterioration under anaesthesia, with subsequent death from multiorgan failure in the intensive care unit 48 h later. Previous cases have reported death from 2,4-dinitrophenol toxicity alone. We believe this is the first reported case of 2,4-dinitrophenol toxicity triggered by the additional physiological stress of polytrauma and emergency surgery.

Analysis of Anti-Doping Rule Violations That Have Impacted Medal Results at the Summer Olympic Games 1968-2012

9 Apr 2021

Analysis of Anti-Doping Rule Violations That Have Impacted Medal Results at the Summer Olympic Games 1968-2012 / Alexander Kolliari-Turner, Giscard Lima, Blair Hamilto, Yannis Pitsiladis, Fergus M. Guppy. - (Sports Medicine (2021) 9 April; p. 1-9)

  • PMID: 33835351
  • PMCID: PMC8033275
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40279-021-01463-4


Abstract

Introduction: Since 2004, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) store all samples collected at summer Olympic Games (OG) for retrospective re-analysis with more advanced analytical techniques to catch doping athletes.

Methods: All announced Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) from IOC re-tests of the 2004, 2008 and 2012 OG (via IOC, International Federations and Athletics Integrity Unit public data) and other ADRVs confirmed to impact OG results from 1968 to 2012 (via the list of Doping Irregularities on olympedia.org) were collated to investigate how many medals have been impacted by ADRVs, when the ADRV was identified relative to the OG in question and its cause.

Results: One hundred and thirty-four medals were impacted by ADRVs but only 26% of these ADRVs were identified at the time of the OG. Most ADRVs impacting medal results (74%) were identified retrospectively, either from events prior to the OG (17%) or via IOC re-tests of samples from 2004, 2008 and 2012 (57%). ADRVs impacting medal results from these re-tests took a mean of 6.8 ± 2.0 years to be announced relative to the end of the OG in which the medal was originally won. Exogenous Anabolic Androgenic Steroid metabolites were present in 90% of all athlete (n = 142) samples from IOC re-tests with dehydrochloromethyltestosterone and stanozolol accounting for 79% of detected substances. Athletics (n = 64) and weightlifting (n = 62) were the most affected sports.

Conclusion: This analysis shows the frequency of targeted pre-OG Out-of-Competition testing should increase. We advocate for long-term sample storage to continue and additionally incorporate novel and potentially complementary technologies/sample matrices.

Pornography use in sexual minority males: Associations with body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life

11 Sep 2017

Pornography use in sexual minority males : Associations with body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life / Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Stuart B. Murray, Jonathan M. Mond. - (Australian & New Zealnd Journal of Psychiatry 52 (2018) 4 (April); p. 339-348)

  • PMID: 28891676
  • DOI: 10.1177/0004867417728807


Abstract

Objective: We examined two hypotheses regarding the potential association of pornography use with body image-related and eating disorder-related psychopathology among sexual minority males (i.e. non-heterosexual males). Our primary hypothesis was that pornography use would be associated with males' body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life impairment; our secondary hypothesis was that the type of pornography, namely, professional versus amateur pornography, which contains idealised and non-idealised (i.e. regular) bodies, respectively, would moderate these associations.

Methods: A sample of 2733 sexual minority males living in Australia and New Zealand completed an online survey that contained measures of pornography use, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life.

Results: Almost all (98.2%) participants reported pornography use with a median use of 5.33 hours per month. Multivariate analyses revealed that increased pornography use was associated with greater dissatisfaction with muscularity, body fat and height; greater eating disorder symptoms; more frequent thoughts about using anabolic steroids; and lower quality of life. Effect sizes for these associations were uniformly small. Neither relationship status nor genital dissatisfaction was associated with pornography use. The association between pornography use and thoughts about using anabolic steroids was stronger for viewers of professional pornography than viewers of amateur pornography.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that the use of pornography is weakly associated with body dissatisfaction and related variables and that the type of pornography (amateur vs professional) viewed may be a moderating factor in some cases. Within the limits of a cross-sectional study design, these findings may have implications for clinicians who treat individuals with eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence and related concerns.

Keywords: Pornography; body image; eating disorders; media; sexual minority males.

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