UKAD 2021 UKAD vs Erin McBride

23 Sep 2021

In April 2021 United Kingdom Anti-Doping (UKAD) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the visually impaired para-cyclist Erin McBride after her A and B sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Ostarine.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived her right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by UKAD. The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and asserted that she could not demonstrate with any evidence that the violation was not intentional in order to receive a reduced sanction.

The Athlete testified that due to her visual impairment she had considerable difficulties in finding the source of the positive test results. She lacked the assistance of her boy friend during her investigations into her supplements whereas had she had  financial limitations that prevented her to test her supplements and to find the possible source of contamination.

UKAD finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's samples and accordingly that she committed an anti-doping rule violation. UKAD considers that the Athlete gave a prompt admission as ground for a reduced sanction and that she failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional.

Therefore UKAD decides on 23 September to impose a reduced 3 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 23 April 2021.

NIF 2020-1 Disciplinary Decision - Boxing

1 Nov 2020

In September 2019 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the amateur boxer Hadi Srour after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Recombinant Erythropoietin (rhEPO). Additionally ADNO reported an anti-doping rule violation for 3 whereabouts filing failures and a missed test within a 12 month period. 

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the the NIF Judging Committee. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance, disputed the test results with assistance of expert witnesses and challenged in vain the imposed provisional suspension.

In his defence the Athlete filed an expert rapport that concluded that there was no presence of rhEPO in his samples. He acknowledged his Whereabouts filing failures due to family problems abroad he had to settle. He refuted the charge that he had breached his provisional suspension. 

The NIF Judging Committee finds that the presence of a prohibited substance had been established in the Athlete’s sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. 

Considering the evidence and witness statements provided by ADNO and 3 WADA accredited laboratories the Judging Committee concludes that the test results are valid and that there had been no departures of the International Standards for Laboratories (ISL) and technical documents.

As a result the Committee rejects the assertions from the Athlete and his expert witnesses that the test results were invalid due to inconsistencies. The Committee accepts the Athlete’s explanation for his negligence regarding the whereabouts filing failures en missed test and that he established grounds for a reduced sanction in this matter.

The Committee considers that the Athlete breached his provisional suspension on two occasions in June 2020 and  deems that the two charges against the Athlete are settled as one single first anti-doping rule violations. 

Therefore the NIF Judging Committee decides on 1 November 2020 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting, starting on the new adjusted date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 19 November 2019.

NIF 2019-3 Disciplinary Decision - Icehockey

21 Oct 2019

In September 2018 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the ice hockey player after his A and B sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone in a low concentration.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the NIF Judging Committee. 

The Athlete admitted the violation and denied the intentional use of the substance. He could not explain how the prohibited substance had entered his system wheras he believed that a contaminated supplement was the source of the positive test. Yet analysis of several supplements in question showed no prohibited substances.

He asserted that previously he had purchased supplements from different sources and researched the ingredients of these products before using. He also denied that he was educated by his club only to use their supplements in order to avoid supplement contamination. Since he played for his club, 3 weeks prior to the Doping Control, he had only used their supplements. 

ADNO contended that the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional nor the source of the prohibited substance since there is no evidence that a contaminated supplement had caused the positive test. Also the Laboratory could not indicate how much of the substance was ingested or when it was ingested. 

The Judging Committee finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete’s sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Committee establishes that there is no evidence that showes how the prohibited substance had entered the Athlete’s system, nor evidence that demonstrates that the violation was not intentional. 

Therefore the NIF Judging Committee decides on 21 October 2019 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 21 September 2018.

NIF 2019-2 Disciplinary Decision - Boxing

22 May 2019

In November 2018 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the boxer after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Testosterone.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. 

The NIF Judging Committee settled the case based on the written submissions of the parties. In this case there were delays in the proceedings attributed to the Athlete since he repeatedly failed to respond timely to the ADNO communications nor provided additional evidence in his defence. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of Testosterone and stated that the substance was presecribed as medical treatment to improve his Testosterone levels. He provided to ADNO only a prescription of his foreign doctor abroad. 

The NIF Judging Committee finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete’s sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional nor that he had acted negligently. 

Further the Committee considers that the Athlete had not applied for a TUE and only had provided insufficient medical information from his doctor whereas there was any evidence that showed that the Athlete suffered from low Testosterone levels. 

Therefore the NIF Judging Committee decides on 22 May 2019 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 21 November 2018.

NIF 2019-1 Disciplinary Decision - Powerlifting

2 Sep 2019

In October 2018 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the powerlifter after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. The NIF Judging Committee settled the case based on the written submissions of the parties. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance but could not explain how it entered his system. He assumed that the supplement he had used was the source he had received from another person, yet he was unable to trace this supplement or the person in question. He asserted that he only trained for his condition and didn’t participate in competitions. 

The Judging Committee finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete’s sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Committee deems that the Athlete failed to establish that the violation was not intentional, nor grounds for No Significant Fault or Negligence. Further the Committee holds that the Athlete could not explain how the substance had entered his system, neither was there any corroborating evidence presented. 

Therefore the NIF Judging Committee decides on 2 September 2019 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 1 October 2018.

NIF 2018-5 Disciplinary Decision - Powerlifting

12 Sep 2019

In May 2018 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the powerlifter for his refusal or failure to submit to sample collection out-of-competition at his home in November 2017. After notification the Athlete did not accept a provisional suspension nor filed a statement in his defence. The NIF Judging Committee settled the case based on the written submissions of the parties. 

ADNO requested the Judging Committee for a sanction of 4 years due to the Athlete had intentionally refusal to submit to sample collection. ADNO contended that before the Athlete’s refusal in November 2017 the Athlete had cancelled his membership of the Norwegian Powerlift Federationin March 2017, yet he remainded submitted to Doping Control for 1 year. Although the Athlete was duly informed by the Doping Control Officers (DCOs) about the consequences the Athlete still refused to cooperate. 

Prior the Athlete had stated to ADNO that he had cancelled his membership and retired from powerlifting since March 2017 and therefore not submitted anymore to Doping Control. He denied that the DCOs had informed him about the consequences of his refusal and asserted that they were unaware that he had retired. Because of his retirement from powerlifting the Athlete showed no concern about a sanction for his refusal.

The Judging Committee finds that under the Rules the Athlete is subjected to Doping Control 1 year after the cancellation of his membership. The Committee concludes that the Athlete clearly had refused to submit to sample collection and that he was duly informed about the consequences of his refusal. 

Considering that there had been substantial delays in the proceedings not attributed to the Athlete the NIF Judging Committee decides on 12 September 2019 to impose a 3 year and 8 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete.

NIF 2018-4 Disciplinary Decision - American Football

24 Apr 2019

On 30 March 2017 the NIF Judging Committee decided to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the foreign American Football player after he tested positive for the prohibited substance Drostanolone. 

Hereafter in August 2017 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) was informed that the Athlete was active abroad in trainings and competitions under a different name. Consequently ADNO reported an anti-doping rule violation for breaching the imposed period of ineligibility. The NIF Judging Committee settled the case based on the written submissions of the parties. 

The Athlete admitted the violation and explained that in his country he had received different answers whether he could play or not. He had participated in several matches, yet after the last two matches he became aware that he had violated the prohibition of participation. The Athlete denied that he had tried to conceal his identity because he had two passports under the names of his family in these countries. 

The Judging Committee finds that there is clear evidence that the Athlete had violated the prohibition of participation and accepts his explanation regarding the different name he had used abroad. The Committee deems that the violation was not intentional, yet concludes that he had acted negligently. Further the Committee considers that there were substantial delays in the proceedings not attributed to the Athlete. 

Therefore the NIF Judging Committee decides on 24 April 2019 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date the current sanction shall end, i.e. 22 September 2020.

NIF 2017-8 Disciplinary Decision - Football

18 Dec 2017

After a police investigation and a confession the Norwegian District Court decided on 26 November 2014 to impose 198 hours of community service on the Athlete for possession and transfer of the substances Stanozolol and hCG.

Hereafter in June 2017 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete for Trafficking. After notification the Athlete filed a statement in his defence and without a hearing the NIF Judging Committee settled the case based on the written submissions of the parties. 

The Athlete admitted the violation and request for a proportional sanction. He argued that the findings of ADNO were erroneous whereas he had provided a fulle confession to the police and ADNO.

He asserted that that he had never been active as trainer of school children or young people as alleged, nor in organized sports. He only had been participated occasionally as coach and football player. After his conviction he lost his job and he deased his ambitions for sports. 

ADNO acknowledged that there were no grounds for a sanction of 6 year and that there had been delays in the proceedings while the Athlete had not received all the communications due to ADNO had used an incorrect address, email address and telephone number. 

The Judging team establishes that the Athlete had been a member of a sports team in 2011 and was active as a football coach in 2012 while he was involved in doping at that time. Further he had been active in sports in the period 2013-2015. 

The NIF Judging Committee considers that the Athlete had admitted the anti-doping rule violation, yet deems that there are no grounds for a further reduction of the sanction, nor for the delays in the proceedings in this case. 

Therefore the NIF Judging Committee decides on 18 December 2017 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the Decision.

NIF 2017-6 Disciplinary Decision - Kickboxing

16 May 2018

In March 2017 Anti-Doping Norway (ADNO) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the foreign kickboxer after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Meldonium.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. Without a hearing the NIF Judging Committee settled the case based on the written submissions of the parties. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and requested for a reduced sanction. He asserted that he was only an amateur Athlete and that he had not received anti-doping education, nor support in this matter from the Norwegian Kickboxing Federation.

Initially the he didn’t know how the Meldonium had entered his system. Later he explained that his foreign ex-girlfriend had provided him Mildronate (Meldonium) tablets in January 2017 as treatment for his fever, headache and cold whereas he believed it was a painkiller. 

ADNO did not accept the Athlete’s explanation and contended that the Athlete failed to establish that the violation was not intentional nor how it entered his system. ADNO established that the Athlete’s Mildronate was produced in October 2016, thus after the Athlete allegedly had used the tablets in January 2016. He didn’t demonstrate the origin of the Mildronate box, neither showed any evidence of purchase of this medication.

Further the Athlete’s girlfriend did not respond to the communications of ADNO and prior he had testified that he had used a high number of medications and supplements. He failed to mention his medication on the Doping Control Form nor was there any evidence that he suffered from a medical condition that needed treatment with Meldonium. 

The NIF Judging Committee finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete’s samples and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. Considering the evidence the Committee rejected the Athlete’s explanation and holds that he failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional, neither No Significant Fault or Negligence. 

Therefore the NIF Juding Committee decides on 16 May 2018 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 13 March 2017.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury From Enobosarm (Ostarine), a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator

4 Sep 2021

Drug-Induced Liver Injury From Enobosarm (Ostarine), a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator / Harjot Bedi, Carl Hammond, David Sanders, Hui-Min Yang, Eric M. Yoshida. - (ACG Case Reports Journal 8 (2021) 1 (January); p. 1-3)

  • PMID: 34368386
  • PMCID: PMC8337042
  • DOI: 10.14309/crj.0000000000000518


Abstract

Anabolic steroids are well-known to cause liver injury, which may manifest with jaundice and elevated liver enzymes. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been developed to enhance muscle bulk without the side effects associated with exogenous androgen steroids. We report a case of significant cholestatic liver injury associated with a SARM, ostarine (enobosarm), similar to that associated with anabolic steroids. Liver injury from SARMs has not been reported frequently, and we speculate that this may be seen more often as the consumption of SARMs increases in the athletic market.

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