WADA - COVID-19: Athlete Q&A - Version 2

25 May 2020

COVID-19 : Athlete Q&A / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020 _________________________________________________ The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has published a Question and Answer (Q&A) document related to anti-doping and COVID-19, which is an update to the document that the Agency published on 23 March 2020. Once again, it was developed in consultation with WADA’s Athlete Committee. The updated Q&A covers matters such as: - Testing during COVID-19 - Minimizing the risk of contracting or transmitting the virus - Filing of whereabouts information - Validating Therapeutic Use Exemptions - Maintaining the integrity of the global anti-doping system - Refusing to comply with testers at this time - Confidence in the anti-doping system WADA will continue to liaise with athletes and Anti-Doping Organizations in the interest of publishing updates regarding the Agency’s response to COVID-19 as the situation evolves.

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iNADO Update #2020-05

25 May 2020

iNADO Update (2020) 5 (25 Mai) Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO) ____________________________________________________ Contents: From the iNADO Community - A New Era for Sports Integrity in Australia - Upcoming Webinar - Anti-Doping Switzerland to expand Investigative Activities - Opinion: A Safe and Clean Return to Sport after Covid-19 Testing - Testing during Covid-19: Unusual Challenges call for unusual Measures - How to collect Evidence in I&I: A Summary of Got Ethics Webinar - Informed Sport: Providing a harmonised Approach to Supplements Testing Research - The Implementation and Effect of the Athlete Biological Passport WADA - 2021 Code Implementation Support Programme goes Online - Updated Covid-19 Guidelines for Anti-Doping Organisations - WADA opens Nomination Process for 2021 Standing Committee Member Vacancies Sport and National Anti-Doping Rules - FEI Consultation to adapt Anti-Doping Rules - Milestone for Anti-Doping Law in Germany - New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

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Prevalence of therapeutic use exemptions at the Olympic Games and association with medals: an analysis of data from 2010 to 2018

6 May 2020

Prevalence of therapeutic use exemptions at the Olympic Games and association with medals : an analysis of data from 2010 to 2018 / Alan Vernec, David Healy. - (British Journal of Sports Medicine (2020) 102028 (6 May); p. 1-6). - PMID: 32376674. - DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102028 _________________________________________________ Abstract Objectives: The percentage of athletes with Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs) competing in elite sport and the association with winning medals has been a matter of speculation in the absence of validated competitor numbers. We used International Olympic Committee (IOC) and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) data to identify athletes competing with TUEs at five Olympic Games (Games) and a possible association between having a TUE and winning an Olympic medal. Methods: We used the IOC's competition results and WADA's TUE database to identify the number of TUEs for athlete competitions (ACs, defined as one athlete competing in one event) and any associations with medals among athletes competing in individual competitions. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for the probability of winning a medal among athletes with a TUE compared with that of athletes without a TUE. We also reported adjusted RR (RRadj) controlling for country resources, which is a potential confounder. Results: During the Games from 2010 to 2018, there were 20 139 ACs and 2062 medals awarded. Athletes competed with a TUE in 0.9% (181/20 139) of ACs. There were 21/2062 medals won by athletes with a TUE. The RR for winning a medal with a TUE was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.73 to 1.65; p=0.54), and the RRadj was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.69 to 1.56; p=0.73). Conclusion: The number of athletes competing with valid TUEs at Games is <1%. Our results suggested that there is no meaningful association between being granted a TUE and the likelihood of winning a medal.

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Content versus Label Claims in Cannabidiol (CBD)-Containing Products Obtained from Commercial Outlets in the State of Mississippi

20 May 2020

Content versus Label Claims in Cannabidiol (CBD)-Containing Products Obtained from Commercial Outlets in the State of Mississippi / Bill J. Gurley, Timothy P. Murphy, Waseem Gul, Larry A. Walker, Mahmoud ElSohly. - (Journal of Dietary Supplements (2020) 20 May; p. 1-9). - https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2020.1766634 _________________________________________________ Abstract Products containing cannabidiol (CBD) are now available throughout the United States, but their quality is oftentimes questionable. The CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 25 commercially available hemp oil products, obtained throughout the state of Mississippi, was determined via gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). These products were also analyzed for the presence of synthetic cannabinoids using full scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Analytical findings were compared to label claims for CBD content. Product label claims for CBD ranged from no claim to 500 mg per serving; however, marked variability was observed between actual CBD content and claimed quantities. Of the 25 products, only three were within ±20% of label claim. Fifteen were well below the stated claim for CBD; two exceed claims in excess of 50%; and 5 made no claims. In addition, THC content for three products exceeded the 0.3% legal limit. Furthermore, four products—primarily marketed for vaping—were adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids. From this small, but diverse, sampling of hemp-derived merchandise, it appears that most product label claims do not accurately reflect actual CBD content and are fraudulent in that regard. Moreover, products that exceed legal THC levels may jeopardize a consumer’s employment status (i.e. failed “drug test”), while those adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids may subject them to serious adverse health effects. These findings argue strongly for further development of current good manufacturing practices for CBD-containing products and their stringent enforcement.

Chronic Users of Supraphysiological Doses of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Develop Hematological and Serum Lipoprotein Profiles That Are Characteristic of High Cardiovascular Risk

1 Jul 2011

Chronic Users of Supraphysiological Doses of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Develop Hematological and Serum Lipoprotein Profiles That Are Characteristic of High Cardiovascular Risk / Alex Souto Maior, Carlos Belchior, Rogério Costa Sanches, Tiago Oliveira da Silva, Tomás Leonelli, Paulo Adriano Schwingel, Roberto Simão, Moacir Marocolo, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento. - (International Journal of Sport and Exercise Science 3 (2011) 2 (July 1); p. 27-36) _________________________________________________ Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use on the hematological and lipoprotein profile of young men practicing sports at fitness centers. Twenty-two male subjects were divided in two groups: AAS (n = 11; 27.3 ± 4.5 years; 85.1 ± 6.8 kg; 174 ± 5.5 cm) and control (n = 11; 24.7 ± 3.6 years; 81.7 ± 7.6 kg; 178.5 ± 6.5 cm). The hemodynamic response, metabolic profile (blood glucose and lactate) and serum lipoprotein levels were measured prior to, during, and after a submaximal exercise test on a cycloergometer. Blood samples were obtained before the exercise test to determine the hematological profile (white and red cells). The hemodynamic response showed no statistically difference between groups before, during, or after submaximal exercise test. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocytes, leucocytes and monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in AAS users compared to control subjects. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower, whereas triglycerides levels, LDL-cholesterol level and the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio were significantly higher in the AAS group. Blood glucose and lactate levels were significantly higher in the AAS users after submaximal exercise test. In conclusion, young men practicing sports at fitness centers who are AAS users exhibit proatherogenic and prothrombotic profile, and premature metabolic disturb in despite of regular physical activity.

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Cheater, Cheater, Pumpkin Eater: The Dark Triad, Attitudes towards Doping, and Cheating Behavior among Athletes

21 Nov 2019

Cheater, Cheater, Pumpkin Eater : The Dark Triad, Attitudes towards Doping, and Cheating Behavior among Athletes / Adam R. Nicholls, Daniel J. Madigan, Lindsay Duncan, Laura Hallward, Lambros Lazuras, Kevin Bingham, Lucas R.W. Fairs. - (European Journal of Sport Science (2019) 21 November); p. 1-7). - DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2019.1694079 - PMID: 31726949 ___________________________________________________ Abstract We examined the relationships between the Dark Triad personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), attitudes towards doping, and cheating behaviour among athletes. One-hundred and sixty-four athletes completed a completed a matrix solving task within a specific time limit. Participants were told they would receive a financial reward for the total number matrices they could solve, but only 13 of the 20 matrices were solvable. This provided the incentive and opportunity for the athletes to cheat. Following this, athletes completed two questionnaires, which assessed the Dark Triad and their attitudes towards doping. All three Dark Triad personality traits correlated positively with attitudes towards doping and cheating behaviour. Regression analyses revealed that psychopathy and narcissism positively predicted attitudes towards doping, and narcissism emerged as a positive predictor of cheating behaviour. Attitudes towards doping correlated positively with cheating behaviour. The Dark Triad appears to be important in relation to both attitudes towards doping and cheating behaviour among athletes. In addition, our findings illustrate that favourable attitudes towards doping are linked with actual cheating among athletes. National Anti-Doping Organizations, sports federations, and coaches could assess athletes' Dark Triad scores and attitudes towards doping in order to identify who may be more likely to cheat.

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Linking Narcissism, Motivation and Doping Attitudes in Sport: A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes

1 Jan 2017

Linking Narcissism, Motivation and Doping Attitudes in Sport : A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes / Doris Matosic, Nikos Ntoumanis, Ian David Boardley, Andreas Stenling, Constantine Sedikides. - (Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 38 (2016) 6 (December); p. 556-566). - PMID: 27834564. - DOI: 10.1123/jsep.2016-0141 _________________________________________________ Abstract Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes' perceptions of controlling behaviors, and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes' reports of needs frustration. Additionally, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated-directly and indirectly-with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes' attitudes toward doping.

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Doping in bodybuilders: A qualitative investigation of facilitative psychosocial processes

12 Feb 2013

Doping in bodybuilders : A qualitative investigation of facilitative psychosocial processes / Ian D Boardley, Jonathan Grix. - (Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health 6 (2013) 3 (12 February); p. 422-439). - DOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2013.766809 _________________________________________________ Abstract The current study was designed to investigate the psychosocial processes that support PED use in bodybuilders utilising Bandura’s (1991) social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. Participants were nine bodybuilders who had previously used or were currently using illicit performance-enhancing substances. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate the psychological and social processes that facilitated their introduction to, and continuation of, doping. Study data were content-analysed deductively using definitions for the eight mechanisms of moral disengagement (Bandura 19913. Bandura, A., 1991. Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In: W.M. Kurtines and J.L. Gewirtz, eds. Handbook of moral behavior and development: theory research and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 71–129.View all references). However, evidence for only six mechanisms was present and a further three emergent themes were inductively coded. The six mechanisms evidenced were moral justification, euphemistic labelling, advantageous comparison, displacement of responsibility, diffusion of responsibility and distortion of consequences. The three emergent themes related to the routinisation of doping, discussing doping with family and friends, and progression from supplement use to doping. All nine themes were discussed with reference to Bandura’s (1991) theory as well as the extant qualitative literature on doping in sport.

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Anabolic Steroids: Dependence and Complications of Chronic Use

26 May 2009

Anabolic Steroids : Dependence and Complications of Chronic Use / Gianluca Quaglio, Anna Fornasiero, Paolo Mezzelani, Stefano Moreschini, Fabio Lugoboni, Alessandro Lechi. - (Internal and emergency medicine 4 (2009) 4 (August); p. 289-296). - PMID: 19468827. - DOI: 10.1007/s11739-009-0260-5 _________________________________________________ Abstract Anabolic steroids are widely used for doping, in professional and domestic sports. The mechanism of action is not completely understood. It may differ somewhat depending on the specific molecule due to structural differences that influence the specificity of binding with steroid receptors. When used by athletes in training, they can improve performance to levels that cannot be attained by almost any combination of sophisticated nonchemical support by modern sport science. The severity of the undesired effects of anabolic steroids depends on a variety of factors, from the type and combination of them, the dose and duration of administration, as well as the gender of the person taking the drug. Younger individuals and women show greater effects caused by anabolic steroids in terms of performance, but are also at greater risk of side effects. This paper presents a review of the literature concerning the major adverse effects of anabolic steroids, focusing the attention on possible situations of addiction from this category of drugs.

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Effects of exercise on lipid parameters of normal male subjects, with and without using power enhancing drugs

1 Dec 2014

Effects of exercise on lipid parameters of normal male subjects, with and without using power enhancing drugs / Faizan Mirza, Sadaf Ahmed. - (Pharma Innovation Journal 3 (2014) 10 (1 December); p. 64-68). ___________________________________________________ Abstract Exercising is largely believed to reduce the chances of cardiovascular disorders. Many people opt for fatburning workouts to achieve a lean physique while others aim at getting a well-muscled body. The latter being a long and tiring process, pushes many people to opt for various power enhancing drugs, for boosting their athletic endurance and increasing the muscle bulk. We evaluated and compared the effects these drugs have had on, lipid parameters of male subjects. Peripheral blood samples were tested for levels of Total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins. The results showed that drugs exerted a profound effect on all lipid parameters, suggesting that users are prone to various cardiovascular risks. It is suggested that the widespread usage of such drugs should be discouraged among the youth.

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